2006 LU Exodus Notes - Fowler

Notes and Outline on the Book of Exodus

Outline by Terence E. Fretheim

Professor Dr. Donald Fowler

Notes taken by Jesse A. Griffin


  1. Growth and Bondage in Egypt - Ch. 1-2

    1. Chapter 1:7 – brings us back to Genesis creation language

      1. Four of the verbs in this verse come from the Genesis


      2. The original command to be fruitful and multiply is applied

        directly to the Israelites

      3. God is able to keep His promises

    2. Verse 8 – Pharaoh embodies all the chaos and evil because he has

      no name

      1. He is the incarnation of the threats to God’s promises

      2. He is the antithesis of God who does not have a specific

        name yet – eventually Yahweh

      3. It is hard to believe that there was a Pharaoh who did not

        know who Joseph was

        1. The Egyptians kept careful records of all rulers and


        2. Odds are he did not forget

        3. yadah becomes a covenant word when it does not mean

          “to know” in the technical sense

        4. Thus, Pharaoh refused to honor the covenant that was

          made with Joseph and his descendents

        5. It is thought that this was one of the early

          18th dynasty Pharaoh’s who expelled the

          1. hega koswe (Egyptian) – kings of foreign lands

          2. They were of Amorite descent

          3. They ruled in Northern Egypt

          4. They were a powerful opponent of the Egyptians

          5. Egyptians were of Mediterranean descent, short and


          6. The Hyksos were much larger, stronger, and had

            weapons of war – composite bow

        6. This Pharaoh that came to power was probably from the

          Egyptians and hated the Hyksos and the Israelites
          (i.e. the Semites)

        7. From Joseph’s death to now is about 3.5 - 4 centuries

    3. Verse 9 – Exaggeration

      1. At the most there were 2.5 million Israelites

      2. The Egyptians clearly outnumbered them

      3. Pharaoh needs an excuse to make a large workforce

      4. Fully 90% of Egyptian land was owned by temples

      5. Pharaoh sees this as an opportunity to establish a greater

        power by harnessing the Israelites

      6. Akhenaton (a Pharaoh to soon follow) clearly tried to reject

        the power of the Priests – he failed however

      7. Pharaoh recognizes that these people are a people, the

        Israelites before they recognize themselves as a people

    4. Leitwort – leading word

      1. Characteristic of Hebrew narrative

      2. Major vehicles for communicating theological emphasis

      3. Cannot find in most English translations – NASB or ESV are

        the best for studying the Bible

      4. yadah – to know; this word almost always carries with it

        covenant connotations

    5. Verse 10

      1. Wisely/shrewdly – only used here in the whole OT –

        significant of the unique theologically situation

      2. Pharaoh’s attempt to be in control of God’s people results

        in the loss of the people

      3. noseph – join themselves; rhymes with Joseph

      4. Pharaoh’s shrewdness is the agency for prompting Israel to

        go up to the Promise Land

    6. Verse 11

      1. “hard labor” – same word Solomon uses to force the

        Israelites to serve the royal interests

      2. “Ramses”

        1. Was used much earlier than the 13th century

        2. The city was being built before the birth of Moses

        3. It is also a storage city not a capital city

        4. Not a reference to Ramses II

    7. Verse 12

      1. God’s will is being done in unobtrusive ways

      2. God is doing what He normally does – He uses human beings to

        accomplish His will

      3. Pharaoh is assuming the role of “decreator”

      4. God will soon become an interventionists

      5. rabah – “multiplied” – evidence that God is still

        fulfilling His promise to Abraham

      6. peats – “spread out”

        1. Birth episode in Genesis 38

        2. Micah 2#2:13 it is used of Christ – foreshadow of the one

          who will spread out for them, Christ

      7. Dread of Egyptians

        1. A logical response to their dread would be to send the

          Israelites out of the land

        2. This dread is from God

    8. Verses 13-14

      1. Sophisticated chiasm around the word “serve”

      2. “Serve” – ‘ebedleitwort – Chapter 2:11, 13, 17

        1. In forcing the Israelites to serve in this capacity

          Pharaoh is acting as the “decreator”

        2. Adam and Eve were created to serve the land

        3. Pharaoh is forcing the Israelites to serve him, not the


        4. The ability to work is a gift from God

        5. By Pharaoh forcing them to work nonstop he is violating

          the creation order law of resting on the Sabbath

        6. This word has creational overtones

        7. Used over 70 times in Exodus

      3. “Mortar and bricks” – reminiscent of the Tower of Babel

    9. Verse 15-22 – passage is dripping with irony

      1. Echoes of Genesis 1–2

        1. The Creator God can assist Hebrew women in birth in

          order to foil the decreator’s plan

        2. “Be fruitful and multiply”

      2. Echoes of Genesis 6

        1. Throwing all babies into the Nile similar to the flood

        2. God sent the flood because of violence and polygamy

        3. God decreates in Genesis 6 based on justice

        4. Pharaoh assumes God’s role as decreator based on


        5. God continues His plan through Hebrew midwives who fear

          Him and not Pharaoh

          1. The midwives serve as a model for Israel and all


          2. One theme of the Bible is fearing the Lord

          3. Central theme of Proverbs – fear the Creator God

        6. Contrast of males and females may go back to the “sons

          of God” having relations with the daughters of Eve

      3. It was a cultural plus to be able to outwit the one who was

        in power – i.e. God works through the Hebrew culture and
        uses midwives to “outshrewd” the alleged shrewd Pharaoh

    10. Theme of the first chapter

      1. Successful multiplying

      2. Last word – “to keep alive”

      3. Sets the foundation for the book: life will triumphant over


    11. God’s work in Chapter 1 is thoroughly unobtrusive

    12. In chapter 2 God will begin raising up a counterpart to Pharaoh;

      Israel’s first king

    13. Chapter 2:1-3

      1. “beautiful” – tob

        1. Clearly echoes Genesis 1, 2

        2. Creation is good; very good

      2. There is always a threat, here it is Pharaoh

      3. “wicker basket” – tub

        1. Same word as “ark” in Genesis 6

        2. The mother is acting on behalf of God

        3. The floating ark preserves Noah and his family; the ark

          floating on the Nile preserves the Israelite family

        4. In Egyptian thought the Nile is a sacred deity

        5. This deity becomes the agency of saving Israel

    14. Verses 2:5-6

      1. Pharaoh is taking away life, but his own daughter is saving


      2. In chapter 1 and 2 God uses women to accomplish His plan

      3. Moses’ mother follows Pharaoh’s command to put the child in

        the river

      4. Strong irony is found in the fact that God uses the

        underdog, those without power to accomplish his plan

      5. The ways of men are to accumulate power and use it; God,

        however, makes use of those without power

      6. We are so obsessed with success that God’s sovereign will is

        not always reflected in success as we think of it

    15. Verses 2:7-10

      1. Moses’ very name reflects God’s ultimate plan for Israel, to

        draw them out of the water

      2. Unwittingly, Pharaoh’s daughter is fulfilling God’s plan

      3. Moses’ mother even gets to nurse him for money!

      4. The shrewd Pharaoh is made to look like a fool because he is

        outdone by midwives and his own daughter and he raises the
        very one who will lead the Israelites out of slavery

      5. Water is symbolic of chaos; God is drawing his plan out of


    16. Verse 2:11

      1. We know nothing about Moses’ biography; his growth,

        education, household experiences, etc. – foreshadow of
        Jesus’ story

      2. God chooses to be unobtrusive in how He uses Moses

      3. God will not become the interventionists until He has fully

        prepared Moses

      4. Sets the stage for Moses to be “God on earth;” not because

        he is God but because God who cannot be seen will do His
        work through Moses who can be seen

        1. Directly related to Pharaoh’s claim to be incarnate


        2. God is not incarnated; but He will work through His


        3. An anticipation, a type of Jesus

      5. “Goes out,” “sees”

        1. Verbs that are used of God also

        2. Anticipates Moses’ role as deliverer

      6. “One of his brethren” – Clear that Moses is on Israel’s side

      7. Lietwort – “Strike down” – same verb used in verse 12

    17. Theme: God accomplishes His will independent of direct divine


      1. God’s will is effected very powerfully by ordinary means

      2. In Exodus, it is largely through women who fear the Lord

      3. God accomplishes as much through unobtrusive means as he

        does through obtrusive means

      4. God, the Creator, is always faced with decreators

      5. God will accomplish His greatest work in America through

        common everyday people, not politicians and not

    18. The divine choice of Moses is the beginning of the fulfillment

      of the promise to Abraham that kings will come forth from his

    19. Verse 2:12

      1. Moses “strikes down” the Egyptian

        1. Just like verse 11 the Egyptian strikes the Hebrew

        2. This verb is used repeatedly in Moses life; often when

          he is doing the Lord’s work

        3. This is the verb used when Moses strikes the rock


        4. Striking for God is good; but independent of God’s will

          results in Moses’ death

        5. Moses’ action here is at the core of the Mosaic Law;

          lex taliones

        6. This anticipates Moses in his capacity as lawgiver

    20. Verse 2:13

      1. “Striking”

        1. Word surfaces again

        2. Anticipates future and past controversies between


      2. God raises up a deliverer and the first activity Moses must

        overcome after deliverance is keeping the people at peace

    21. Verse 2:14

      1. Typical that they do not understand that God has raised him


      2. Moses probably didn’t understand that God had raised him up

        for this either

      3. They don’t understand God’s will because he is working


      4. God’s people consistently reject the prophets that God sends

      5. Similar to Jesus; Stephen’s speech

    22. Verse 2:15

      1. Moses’ experience is exactly the same as Israel will have

        1. Enter into conflict with the Egyptians

        2. Moses becomes the subject of a murderous edict from


        3. Moses will try to “flee” (same verb as 14:5) for his


        4. Goes to Mt. Sinai

        5. Moses testifies to being a ger – sojourner

      2. In order to be God’s acknowledged leader Moses has to

        experience the same events as Israel in advance

      3. The same typology occurs in Christ’s life – Jesus relives

        the same events as Moses and Egypt experiences

      4. Ironically, Israel rejects Moses and Midian accepts him;

        Israel rejects Jesus and Gentiles accept Him

    23. Moses “sees, strikes, delivers”

      1. God does the same thing

      2. The verb “see” implies action in the context

      3. Same sequence in Judges

      4. God acting on behalf of Israel as Israel’s king

    24. The act of life-giving activity must occur in the context of


      1. Establishing justice is creational activity

      2. Characteristic of Hebrew prayer is for justice

      3. Characteristic of Christian prayer is for mercy

    25. Verse 2:15

      1. Moses sits by a well like Jacob

      2. He gets a wife like Jacob!

      3. Concept of the well is a legitimate typology

      4. The well gives water and therefore life

      5. The well gives social contact and therefore a wife

    26. Verse 2:16

      1. Priest of Midian has 7 daughters

        1. Implies great abundance

        2. God has supplied plenty on behalf of Moses

      2. Priest of Midian foreshadows Moses and his encounter with


    27. Verse 2:17

      1. Moses becomes a deliverer once more

      2. Then proceeded to help water them

    28. Verse 2:18-19

      1. Moses apparently looked like an Egyptian

      2. He is not recognized as a Hebrew

      3. Probably wore dark eye makeup

      4. Moses drew the water from the well; just like his name means

        “drawn from water”

    29. Verse 2:20-21

      1. Hospitality is thought of in terms of justice

        1. Moses shows hospitality to Jethro’s daughters

        2. Jethro then shows hospitality to Moses

      2. Moses also receives a wife

    30. Verse 2:22

      1. Names the son “Gershom” – sojourner there

      2. The name anticipates the condition of Israel

    31. Verse 2:23

      1. Moses has to flee Egypt and receives a child

      2. Pharaoh stays in Egypt and dies

      3. No matter how spectacular the decreators are, they are still

        mere men who die

      4. Human fame is always contextualized by the reality that

        humans die

      5. Groaning

        1. Reminiscent of Cain and Abel

        2. Cycle of events in Judges

    32. God’s will is done at the well, not on the mountain

      1. Make the most of people encounters

      2. This is the primary way in which God moves

      3. There is no such thing as an insignificant conversation

      4. Study Jesus at the well

        1. He repeatedly asks questions that draw the woman out of

          herself and toward Him

        2. He nurtures the conversation to something important

        3. Jesus investigates the woman

    33. Verse 2:24-25

      1. God remembers in the sense that He chooses to be true to the

        covenant that He made

      2. God saw – implies action

      3. “Took notice”

        1. Lietwort – yada

        2. God knows Israel; He will act on their behalf

        3. He will act faithfully to His covenant

    34. The text is literature; that is where most of the theology is


  1. Moses and God: Call and Dialogue - 3:1-7:7

    1. Longest call narrative in the Bible - 3:1-6:1

      1. Moses objects 8 times to the Divine call

        1. This clearly shows God’s patience

        2. Patience that comes from the fact that a covenant has

          been established

        3. God will be true to His covenant, no matter what

      2. Includes all the elements of a typical call

        1. Theophany

        2. Introductory word

        3. Divine commission

        4. Moses’ objection

        5. God’s reassurance

        6. Sign

      3. Dialogue is not very common in narrative

      4. One of the longest dialogues between God and man

        1. Words are agencies that God uses to accomplish His will

        2. Communication is evidence of God

        3. The Trinity is based on communication

        4. Speech is one of the great messages of the Bible; the

          violation of speech is one of God’s most sensitive
          ethical issues

        5. This may be a paradigm of how God wants to relate to all

          of us

        6. God obviously enjoys dialogue

      5. Verse 3:1

        1. Moses is a shepherd – he doesn’t really have the choice

          to be anything else

        2. Mount Horeb

          1. Horeb is Hebrew for “wasteland”

          2. Not certain whether it was called the mountain of

            God before this event or because of this event

      6. Verse 3:2-5

        1. Moses is drawn to the bush by curiosity

        2. The name of the bush is a dead rhyme to mount Sinai

          1. The bush becomes a foreshadow of God revealing

            Himself to Moses on mount Sinai

          2. God does not let Moses comes near

          3. “Close, but no closer” is a very important point

        3. “Moses, Moses,” similar to 1 Samuel 3

        4. No one in the OT was ever accorded the relational

          privileges that Moses had with God – Num. 12:6ff

          1. Begins to set the stage for the incarnation

          2. Moses is the incarnation of God’s will

          3. Yet as close as Moses got to God, he could not see


        5. God speaks to Moses 13 times

        6. God stops him from coming closer; perhaps he could have

          contaminated the holy ground

      7. Verse 3:6

        1. God is the same God of Moses’ fathers, the God of the


        2. Literary and theological envelope – God’s presence

          1. Moses is aware that he is in God’s presence, he

            hides his face

          2. In chapter 33 Moses asks “show me Your glory”

      8. Words of sight are used 9 times in this short passage

      9. Verse 3:7-8

        1. Same verbs in 2:24-25

          1. I have seen, heard, know

          2. These words mean that God is eternally true to His


        2. God will come and deliver the Israelites

        3. God will fulfill His promise of the land

        4. “Land flowing with milk and honey”

          1. Canaanite proverb

          2. Should not be taken literally

          3. It just means that it is good land

        5. God lists the nations He will defeat

          1. List occurs several times

          2. Last people group is always Jebusites

            1. God anticipates that Jerusalem will be important

            2. This city is not very important yet

            3. Ultimately, God has in mind that Jerusalem will

              be the resting of the tabernacle

      10. Verse 3:9-11

        1. “Behold”

          1. Should not really be translated as such

          2. This Hebrew particle has two uses:

            1. To introduce vividness

            2. To introduce immediacy

          3. At this very moment God is hearing Israel’s cry

          4. Better translation, “At this very moment,”

        2. Irony between Moses’ first response, “here am I,” but

          now that he has heard Pharaoh it changes to “who am

          1. It is a measure of Moses that he is conscience of

            his limitations

          2. Moses is not infatuated with his own gifts

          3. He has a realistic evaluation of himself

          4. The problem is his evaluation of God

          5. Similar to Isaiah, “I am a man of unclean lips”

          6. We have lost our sense of God’s greatness; we are

            more impressed with leadership strength rather
            than the distance between Moses and God

        3. God does not answer Moses with self-help therapy

          1. God answers him with a more completely view of


          2. God is God and is able to use insignificant people

      11. Verse 3:12

        1. Theme: Presence of God

          1. Hebrew verb – “I will be”

          2. Significant that Jesus also said “I will be with


          3. Envelope with God taking up residence in the


        2. The sign does not help!

          1. It is at the wrong end

          2. The sign occurs after everything else occurs

          3. Reminds us that this is a process

      12. Verse 3:13

        1. Moses needs a personal name

          1. He already knows the name Yahweh

          2. Moses is anticipating that God is going to establish

            a covenant

          3. If he is going to the people then the people are

            going to ratify a covenant and they need a name to
            make the covenant with

          4. Moses wants to know what is the name for the


        2. Moses is still traumatized by the mention of Pharaoh

      13. Verse 3:14-15

        1. “I am who I am”

          1. Wordplay between “I will be” and Yahweh

          2. Could be “I will be who I am, I am who I will be”

          3. Not sure of the exact translation

          4. The idea is Divine presence

        2. Name is confirmation of the promise

        3. It is not the revelation of the divine name here, but it

          is the revelation of the meaning of the divine name

        4. The divine name envelopes the book – from here to the

          revealing of God’s name to Moses in Exodus 34

      14. Verse 3:16

        1. Through the elders Moses can contact and influence the

          whole people

        2. God has made an appearance

          1. This is significant because God has been absent for

            400 years

          2. This will be actualized when God makes Himself

            visible to all Israel

        3. “I am concerned” – actually means “I have visited you”

        4. God is a relational being

      15. The Law is the evidence that there is a relationship and a


      16. Verse 3:18

        1. “Will listen” – God is speaking about the ultimate

          reality, not the short term

        2. God says Moses is supposed to go with the elders

        3. The reality is that the elders never went

        4. Aaron probably replaced the elders

        5. “God of the Hebrews” – double entendre, refers to

          Acadian phrase that was known

        6. “3 days journey”

          1. Semitic idiom which means “A long journey”

          2. Probably not technical sense of 3

          3. Like the story of Nineveh

          4. Moses probably has in mind going to Mount Sinai

      17. Verse 3:19-20

        1. “Under compulsion”

          1. I know he will not let you go except by a “mighty


          2. This “mighty hand” is the power of God in the hand

            of Moses

        2. It is the hand of Moses that effects the power of God

        3. The hand of Moses is exemplified specifically in his


        4. God knows exactly what it will take to bring Pharaoh to

          the point where he issues the decree “let the people

      18. Verse 3:21-22

        1. Interesting event that has been confirmed historically

        2. Reminder that God is intent at making the point that He

          is just

        3. The Egyptians have unjustly oppressed the Hebrews; they

          have taken their wealth and dignity

        4. The Hebrews will eventually take that plunder from God

          and turn it into their own god

        5. “Plunder” rhymes with “deliver”

      19. Verse 4:1

        1. There is a reasonability to Moses’ objection but it is

          dwarfed by the fact that he is in the very presence of

        2. The Hebrews actual did question Moses

        3. However, God has the ability to empower Moses to do

          whatever He wishes

      20. Verse 4:2

        1. “What is this?” rhymes with “staff”

        2. God immediately fixates on Moses’ hand

        3. The divine purpose in asking questions is to allow for

          interaction and relationship; not that He doesn’t know

        4. The staff in Moses’ hand now becomes a motif for the

          rest of his life

        5. The staff is the power from God and it is his own

          failure that keeps him from entering the Promise Land

      21. Verse 4:3

        1. This snake is clearly poisonous because Moses flees

        2. If it were the Cobra it would virtually be able to

          outrun Moses

      22. Verse 4:4

        1. Grabbing snakes by the tail is not a good strategy

        2. No reason for Moses’ courage to pick up the snake

        3. Egyptians were infamous for their ability to do magic;

          is this just a magical sign?

          1. The Egyptian cobra goddess was a symbol of Pharaoh’s


          2. There is no more powerful symbol of Pharaoh’s power

            than the cobra goddess Buto

          3. This is a clear polemic against Pharaoh

        4. Pharaoh has a shepherds crook which is a symbol for king

        5. Moses is becoming God’s king

        6. Pharaoh also has a flail

          1. Once described as a whip

          2. It is now believed to be the instrument used by

            early goat herders

        7. Both these instruments take us back to the earliest

          instruments of kingship – a shepherd

        8. Moses will be God’s king, even king of Egypt’s king

        9. Moses is now Israel’s divinely appointed king

      23. Verse4: 6-7

        1. In case Moses did not understand the first sign

        2. Moses’ hand is being uniquely isolated as the means by

          which God will do His mighty work

        3. The hand can become clean as well as unclean

          1. The hand is so powerful as to overpower Pharaoh

          2. The hand also becomes the downfall of Moses

          3. Will the power in Moses’ hand stay good, or become


        4. God is uniquely commissioning Moses as His king

        5. Leadership in this capacity must be accompanied by

          obedience to God

        6. Any king of Israel is only king so long as he is willing

          to obey God – an evil king will never go unpunished

        7. Anticipates king Uzziah – 2 Chronicles; he sought to

          burn incense before God and he was struck with leprosy

      24. Verse 4:8-9

        1. Things appear in threes

        2. Not good evidence for open theism

        3. Nile turns to blood

          1. Obvious polemic against the lifeblood of Egypt, the


          2. Against the god of the Nile, Nun

          3. 1 – Nun was at the heart of the ancient pantheon

          4. 2 – the Nile was at the heart of their agriculture


          5. 3 – Water is the most vital means of effecting

            spiritual cleansing – In the Egyptian religion
            water was at the heart of salvation

        4. These signs convince the Israelites but not Pharaoh

        5. It is Moses’ hand that reaches into the Nile and pours

          it out

        6. Envelope: unique investment of God’s power in Moses

          1. This is how God relates to Israel in the OT

          2. If God’s appointed leader is faithful then they are


          3. If God’s appointed leader is faithless then they are


          4. Moses was clearly a king

      25. Verse 4:10

        1. Num. 12:3 – Moses was more humble than anyone else

          1. The biblical word “humble” does not mean what it

            does in English

          2. What the Hebrew word really means is “pious”

          3. Thus, Moses is the man who understands his

            relationship with God better than anyone else

          4. God is king, Moses is His slave

        2. Egyptian – hom is the word for priest and servant

        3. Two categories of priests in Egyptian religion

          1. Kher-hebet – “servant of the god,” priest who was

            responsible to speak

          2. Sem – silent, he carried and presented offerings

        4. Perhaps Moses has in his mind that Aaron could be the

          lector priest and he could be the servant in the

        5. His protest, essentially, is a lack of faith

        6. Acts 7#7:22

      26. Verse 4:11-12

        1. Isaiah 45#45:5-7; Psalm 139#139:1-6

          1. God causes calamity

          2. We do not know if He sovereignly causes all calamity

          3. The proper response in any situation is putting

            one’s faith in God

        2. Thus, God’s response is that “I have made you”

        3. Each person is uniquely shaped by God

        4. Short command, “Go”

          1. Moses’ protest is wordy

          2. God’s command is plain and simple

        5. God also gives a promise

          1. God promises His presence

          2. He also promises that to teach Moses what to say

        6. Large emphasis on mouth in this short passage

          1. Egyptian religion had a ceremony called The Opening

            of the Mouth

          2. If the Egyptians could make a statue alive than how

            much more can the God of Heaven make Moses speak

      27. Verse 4:13

        1. Moses’ remark is deferential

        2. He is not saying clearly “don’t send me” but he is

          resisting and asking that God would send another

      28. Verse 4:14-17

        1. God is angry

        2. God agrees to the commissioning of Aaron

        3. God creates distinctions

          1. God speaks to Moses, Moses to Aaron

          2. Only Moses can take the staff in his hand

          3. Aaron and Miriam both fall into the leadership trap

            and try to elevate themselves

        4. God’s sovereignty works with us, not just above us

          1. There is a real relationship between God and man

          2. God does not turn us into robots

          3. God is not content to just impose His sovereign will

          4. The mystery is that God uses bad choices on our part

            to further the relationship

          5. Similar to Christ’s fellowship with Judas knowing

            that he will betray Him

          6. Further, Christ chose His three closest friends to

            go with Him to the garden of Gethsemane knowing
            that they would fail Him in His hour of greatest

        5. Aaron’s name means “joined together;” it anticipates

          Moses and Aaron becoming a team

      29. Verse 4:18

        1. Patriarchal society

        2. Moses needed Jethro’s permission

      30. Verse 4:19-23

        1. Anticipates much of the rest of the story

        2. Pharaoh’s heart hardened

          1. Three different words for “hardened”

          2. Several different references made to this topic

          3. Yahweh hardens Pharaoh’s heart; Pharaoh hardens his

            heart; some texts do not mention the agent

          4. There is a mutual hardening of Pharaoh

            1. It is Pharaoh

            2. It is God

            3. Priority (who hardened first) is not the point

          5. Egyptian theology does not allow Pharaoh to repent –

            he thinks he is god

          6. One of the ways God makes Himself known is

            displaying His sovereignty

          7. Any Pharaoh would have reacted in this same way

          8. Romans 9 – God is free to do what He wants

          9. Pharaoh’s hardening is only in relation to him not

            letting the people go

          10. This whole circumstance creates the opportunity for

            God to display His power

          11. The salvation message in this book is that nothing

            can stop God from fulfilling the divine plan to
            redeem Israel

        3. Prediction of the death of the firstborn

      31. Verse 4:24-26

        1. Perhaps the most difficult passage in this book to make

          sense of

        2. Who is he?

          1. Could be Moses; which would be bizarre

          2. Cold be Gershom; Moses’ firstborn son

        3. Zipporah intervenes once again and continues the theme

          of female heroines throughout the book

          1. “Foot” – actually means genitals

          2. “Threw” – actually says she “touched”

          3. Thus, she touched her son’s foreskin at Moses’


          4. This act apparently was how she saved Moses

          5. It is thought that this is a foreshadow of the

            Passover where the blood on the door posts saves
            the firstborn

          6. The blood of the first born expiated the sin of

            someone – either that Moses wasn’t circumcised or
            his son wasn’t, or both

        4. The angel of the Lord was merely “seeking” his death,

          not necessarily decreed his death

        5. There is a clear connection between this passage and vs.


        6. For more information on this topic see Word Biblical

          Commentary by John Duram

      32. Verse 4:27

        1. met - same verb as in vs. 24

        2. Not sure why the text mentions the kiss though it was


      33. Verse 4:29-31

        1. Aaron speaks

        2. “He” performed the signs

          1. Not sure who this is

          2. Most likely Moses

        3. The text moves a lot faster than what happened in real

          life counting the journeying and the gathering of the

        4. The people believe

        5. The people “bowed low and worshiped”

          1. They are not entirely sure Who they are worshipping

          2. Their belief fulfills God’s statement to Moses

          3. Statement appears again in 12:27

          4. They do this again at Passover

      34. Verse 5:1

        1. Open ended

        2. Moses is not saying that we are all leaving

        3. Not certain how they got an audience with Pharaoh

      35. Verse 5:2

        1. Who is Yahweh?

          1. That answer follows in the rest of the text

          2. Specifically chapter 6

        2. I do not know Yahweh

          1. Reminiscent of the previous Pharaoh’s statement, “I

            do not know Joseph”

          2. It is a covenant word that means he refuses to

            accept what Yahweh has to say

        3. Besides all this, he will not let the people go

      36. Verse 5:3-9

        1. Pharaoh does not care what God does to Israel

        2. “Labor” appears 7 times – also the word for “serve”

        3. Who will they serve? Creator God, or decreator god?

        4. All of the earth’s tyrants respond to threats with

          greater harshness

        5. Joshua 24 – “choose you this day who you will serve

      37. Verse 5:10-14

        1. “Thus says Pharaoh”

          1. Messenger formula

          2. Antithesis to 5:1

        2. Nothing grows outside of .5 a mile of the Nile

      38. Verse 5:15-20

        1. Characteristic of decreators is to use the enslaved to

          abuse the enslaved

        2. The human heart in all its evilness is exposed here in

          the lives of the Hebrew foreman

      39. Verse 5:21-23

        1. Everyone blames the Lord

        2. If you are in a position of leadership, this experience

          is going to happen you

          1. People see doubt as an opportunity for unbelief

            rather than a chance to grow closer to God

          2. The people you are leading will complain

        3. Why would Yahweh move things along so low?

          1. To develop Moses’ character

          2. Reveals God’s character; His patience

          3. Relationship, covenant relationship

            1. God is faithful

            2. The higher the form of communication the more


            3. Disappointments are opportunities to make

              healthy changes

            4. God gives Israel the opportunity to bond with

              Him in a true relationship

            5. Forces Israel (and Moses) to learn dependency

      40. Verse 6:1

        1. Lietwort is “compulsion” – mighty hand

        2. Pharaoh will only act under compulsion

    1. Restatement - 6:2-7:7

      1. Verse 6:2-8

        1. Envelope (or chiasm) – “I am Yahweh”

        2. JEDP system

          1. OT is a patchwork of various editors

          2. J – Yahwist – 10-9th

          3. E – Elohist – 9-8

          4. D – Deuteronomist – 7-6

          5. P – Priestly – Exile

          6. This system was started in 1600’s

          7. This system cannot be made to work “neatly”

          8. Almost no one agrees with how this works across the

            whole OT

          9. They “know” it works, but no one can agree on how

        3. C.S. Lewis refers to modern scholars as “Chronological


          1. They have a sense of superiority at the expense of

            the ancients

          2. Thus, Scribes who are nearly inerrant and incredibly

            meticulous are made to look like fools if this
            JEDP system is true

        4. The notion that Israel at one time did not know the

          divine name is false

        5. God appearing seems to be related to El Shaddai

          1. This passage is the 7th mention of God’s

            appearance as El Shaddai

          2. God seems to have appeared to the Patriarchs as el

          3. This is probably because Abraham associated this

            name with God

          4. Shaddai is most likely an epithet

          5. God is addressing one of His promises to Abraham,

            that his descendents will be numerous

        6. Now God is changing his name in order to address

          another part of the Abrahamic promise

          1. Yahweh is the name that God is going to use to

            fulfill another part of the covenant

          2. Verb root is “to be”

          3. This name has the new significance of one of the

            themes; presence of God with Israel

          4. [Insert chart from OT book]

        7. Thus, El Shaddai revolves around descendents; Yahweh

          revolves around land

        8. In Exodus 3 God revealed to Moses the contextual meaning

          of the divine name Yahweh, “I will be with you”

        9. In this passage God is saying “Because I am with you I

          will fulfill my covenant to give you the land”

        10. “I did not make Myself known…” (vs. 3)

          1. Does not mean “know about”

          2. Means that God is now making His covenant with

            Israel concerning land (vs. 4)

        11. The gospel message in the OT: “Bring out,” “deliver,”


        12. This Exodus story has frequent allusions to Genesis 6

          1. Here the land is filled with violence upon Israel

          2. Here, just like the ark, God brings out, delivers,

            and redeems Israel

          3. Instead of just saving the elect family, it moves to

            the elect nation

        13. Formula, “I am Yahweh” means divine presence

        14. John uses this as a revelatory formula all the way

          through his gospel

      2. Verse 6:9-13

        1. This is an excuse – “An excuse is just a lie stuck in

          the skin of reason”

        2. Anytime our eyes are on ourselves, rather than God, we

          subject ourselves to failure

      3. Verse 6:14-27

        1. Genealogy

        2. The purpose is to show the leaders of Israel

        3. Explain who helped to lead Israel out of Egypt

      4. Verse 6:28-30

        1. Even ineffective communication is better than no


        2. Moses uses a substitute excuse, he is clearly afraid

        3. The real issue is “I’m afraid and I’m not convinced we

          are going to pull this off”

      5. Verse 7:1

        1. Moses will be God, and Aaron his prophet

        2. This anticipates the incarnation of Christ

        3. Jesus is the one who will truly be God in the flesh and

          will bring out, deliver, and redeem His people

        4. Correct understanding of this book is essential for the

          proper interpretation of the gospel of John

      6. It doesn’t matter how relationships start out, it matters

        how they end up

        1. It’s not how bad things go, its how you continue on

        2. Relationships should not be based on good times only

        3. God does not hold Moses’ objections and hurtful actions

          toward Him against Moses

      7. Verse 7:3

        1. God didn’t have to harden Pharaoh’s heart

        2. It is clear that Pharaoh was not going to let the people


        3. Lietwort – “Signs and wonders”

          1. Code words throughout Exodus

          2. Also appear in Acts 1-15

          3. Formula that is referring to the miracles that God

            will do to demonstrate to the whole world that He
            is the real God, even though He can’t be seen

      8. Verse 7:7

        1. The ages remind us that God is the giver of life

        2. Pharaoh’s didn’t live to be 80

  1. The Plagues - 7:8-11:10

    1. Verse 7:9-10

      1. Hebrew: tanin – translated “serpent” unusual Hebrew word

        (only appears 12 times)

        1. Often suggests cosmic type of serpent

        2. This is certainly not a normal kind of snake

      2. The imagery here is different than the first time

        1. This serpent is mythical

        2. Not exactly sure, but it is extra-normal

        3. It is also able to eat all the snakes of Pharaoh’s


    2. Verse 7:11-13

      1. It could very well have been demonic arts

      2. Pharaoh’s magicians really did perform miracles – Satan has

        the ability to perform miracles

      3. Very important to note that God’s miracles are better and

        overpower Satan’s

      4. Pharaoh of course was hardened

    3. Verse 7:14

      1. God takes time to tell Moses what Pharaoh is thinking

      2. God is orchestrating the events through Moses

    4. Verse 7:15-25

      1. Emphasis on staff of Moses and Aaron

        1. Both are divinely accredited

        2. Both are the agency for turning the Nile to blood

      2. The Nile

        1. Egypt gets maybe 2” of rain each year

        2. The Nile is its life-source

        3. It is the means by which they get drinking water and

          farming water

      3. We cannot make sense of why we have the plagues in the order

        that we have them – It is significant, however, that the
        first plague strikes the Nile

      4. God strikes more than just the Nile

        1. The Egyptians built reservoirs

        2. These reservoirs filled up when the Nile flooded every


        3. God turns every supply of water to blood

        4. This plague is a polemic against Egyptian physical and

          theological life

        5. Against the Nile deities

          1. Khnum – guardian of the Nile

          2. Hapi – spirit of the Nile (chief deity)

            1. Both male and female characteristics

            2. The Nile represented fertility

            3. When the Nile is turned to blood God is

              attacking the action of Hapi

          3. Osiris – Nile was bloodstream

      5. The text continues to show a sophisticated knowledge of

        Egyptian theology

        1. Digging in the ground for water

        2. This sign has not undone the primeval deity Nun

        3. Nun stretched under the earth and was found as water in

          the earth

      6. Envelope: the first and the last plagues are marked by blood

      7. Envelope: the first and the last plagues have to do with


      8. Echoes of Pharaoh’s edict to throw Hebrew sons into the Nile

        The Nile is essential in the functioning of their religion

        1. Ritual cleansing through the water of the Nile was

          essential to rebirth

        2. Rebirth is no longer possible in their religion when the

          Nile is polluted

      9. Pharaoh was unconcerned

      10. Seven days, loaded number

    5. Hebrew: nagaph (technical word)

      1. Verb form occurs 45 times – 18 of which are God delivering a

        blow to Egypt

      2. 33 derived forms – 30 of which are God delivering a blow to


      3. Yahweh is doing more than just delivering a plague, He is


    6. Three words that dominate the plague accounts

      1. Serve

      2. All – over 50 times in these plague accounts

      3. Land – over 50 times in these plague accounts

      4. “All the land”

        1. Echoes Genesis

        2. “Fill all the land…”

        3. “All the land filled with violence…”

        4. Both the people and the land suffer the same fate

    7. Verse 8:1-2

      1. Egyptian deity

        1. Heqt – form of frog

        2. God of resurrection

        3. Resurrection was through the Nile

        4. Associated with fertility

        5. Associated specifically with birth

        6. Female deity

        7. Servant of Heqt – means midwives

      2. Not a pleasant happening

      3. Possibly this plague was chosen because of the theological

        claims of this deity

        1. Enhances the qualities of God as life-giver

        2. Highlights God’s ability to multiply His people in the

          midst of Pharaoh’s attempt to kill them

        3. The land is now teeming with frogs

        4. Counterclaim by God that He is the one who grants


    8. Verse 8:3-8

      1. Once again, if the magicians actually mimic the miracle,

        they only make it worse! They could be considered to be
        serving God indirectly

      2. “Entreat”

        1. Not the word “pray”

        2. More similar to “ask” or “make a request”

        3. Pharaoh has not assumed any religiosity

    9. The reason for the first two plagues are likely theological

    10. The next four plagues are designed to make life miserable for

      the Egyptians and Pharaoh

    11. The last four involve loss of human life

    12. Verse 8:9-11

      1. When would you like to be frogless?

      2. Tomorrow

      3. Shows the sovereignty of God in being able to do whatever He

        wants whenever He wants

    13. Verse 8:12-15

      1. “Cry out”

        1. Used in chapter 2 when the Israelites cried out to the


        2. Not normally a prayer word

        3. A subtle way in which Moses is interceding on behalf of


      2. The death of the frogs would have caused disgusting smells

        and clean up

      3. Pharaoh still refuses to let them go

        1. He hardened his own heart

        2. Yahweh and Pharaoh work together to hardened his heart

    14. Verse 8:16-19

      1. Not sure what they were

        1. Could be gnats

        2. Could be mosquitoes, maggots

        3. Could just be translated swarms

      2. Magicians are not capable of replicating

        1. Each time the magicians loose power

        2. “This is the finger of God”

          1. Deut. 9:10 – ten commandments written by God’s


          2. Luke 11#11:20 – Jesus casting out demons by the finger

            of God

          3. Could be a reference to Aaron’s staff

          4. It is not sure that they are referring to Yahweh God

    15. The primary theological theme that is going on is that Yahweh is


    16. By the 18th dynasty 90% of the land was owned by


      1. Pharaoh was the most powerful single man but their religious

        temples and priests held the majority of the power as a

      2. It could be that Pharaoh hardens his heart because he has no


      3. Pharaoh may not have all the power necessary to let the

        Hebrews go

      4. Thus, when the priests/magicians report that “this is the

        finger of God” they may be reporting the status of what
        they think

    17. Verse 8:20-21

      1. Not sure why Pharaoh went down to the water

        1. Wasn’t for cleaning because its dangerous

        2. Could have been something religious

      2. Language similar to the frog plague, only insects

      3. Purpose is obviously just to make life miserable

    18. Verse 8:22-24

      1. Purpose is to show that God is in their midst

      2. Israel set apart

      3. “Division between My people…”

        1. Hebrew root: padah

          1. Means redemption

          2. NASB – set apart

          3. There is no semantic domain for “distinction,” or


        2. The word padad has the division idea

      4. Hebrew: sahat

        1. “Laid waste”

        2. Echoes Genesis 6 – land laid waste via the flood

        3. This word reappears three times in chapter 12

        4. Echoes God’s determination to be true to the covenant He

          has made with Israel

    19. Verse 8:25-26

      1. Not sure, but it seems like Pharaoh is avoiding the name


      2. This is a movement in the right direction

      3. “Abomination”

        1. Gen. 43:32, 46:34

        2. Moses is echoing the words of Joseph’s story when the

          Egyptians would not eat with the Semites or shepherds

        3. To the Egyptians, Semites are an abomination

        4. To the Egyptians, animal sacrifice is an abomination

    20. Throughout the plagues Aaron has a discernable decline in the

      role he plays

    21. Verse 8:27-32

      1. None left – shows the power of God

      2. Jeremiah 38

        1. Zedekiah king of Judah, so he arrests Jeremiah and

          tortures him and then releases him

        2. Then Zedekiah asks Jeremiah to come talk to him by night

        3. Zedekiah feels like he can’t surrender to the king of

          Babylon because he thinks the people around him will
          assassinate him

        4. To some degree we wonder if Pharaoh was encountering the

          same problems

    22. Verse 9:1-3

      1. For the first time these people are referred to as Hebrews

      2. Catastrophic consequences if Pharaoh refuses

      3. Over 200 times the phrase “hand of the Lord” is used and

        followed by judgment

    23. Verse 9:4-7

      1. Nothing will happen to Israel

      2. Tomorrow – repeat from when Pharaoh said remove the plague


      3. Loss of livestock means loss of work, food, status

      4. Hebrew: shalach “Send”

        1. Pharaoh sends messengers to check on Israel

        2. But he will not send Israel away

    24. Verse 9:8-12

      1. Last time Aaron plays an active role

      2. The boils that God sends on the Egyptians are the same boils

        that God threatens to give to Israel in Deuteronomy

      3. Also the boils in Job’s experience

      4. “Could not stand” – may be literal

      5. The previous plague may have killed all the animals that

        were penned up, and this one may affect those in the

    25. Verse 9:13-17

      1. Hebrew napah

        1. Blows or strike

        2. This is the only time in the OT where this word is used

          in the plural

        3. Used for the judgment of God

      2. God wants His name to be known

        1. As present

        2. As Creator God

        3. Both for Egypt and Israel

    26. The whole story shows God’s grace

      1. He is true to His covenant

      2. These plagues show God’s grace and compassion on Israel’s


      3. Shows the triumphant of God’s grace

      4. There is a sense in which we are all Egyptians – or worse

        than them because we are not ignorant

    27. Verse 9:18-26

      1. Egypt rarely if ever gets hail

      2. Moses’ staff is used to effect God’s will

      3. Echoes of

        1. Flood

        2. Language of Theophany

        3. Another artful way to show that God is present

        4. These words reappear (except the hail) in chapter 19

        5. Sodom and Gomorrah

      4. “Every plant,” “every tree”

        1. All never means all

        2. For emphasis

        3. Wholesale destruction

      5. Land of Goshen is protected once again

    28. Verse 9:27-30

      1. What is Pharaoh saying?

        1. Is he truly repenting of a sin?

        2. Main Hebrew word for sin means “to miss the mark”

          1. Not necessarily moral

          2. Pharaoh was saying that he made a mistake, made a

            bad judgment

        3. Not claiming that Yahweh is righteous but rather just

          that He was right in this situation

        4. Foxhole repenter!

      2. Creational language

    29. Verse 9:31-35

      1. Side note describing what was ruined

      2. There was still vegetation left for the locusts

      3. Pharaoh hardens his heart again

      4. Similar to the Canaanites who do not relent

    30. Verse 10:1-6

      1. Obviously the hail did not destroy everything

      2. God is the Creator of all land and all people

      3. The locusts will destroy anything that was left

    31. Verse 10:7-11

      1. Pharaoh’s servants

        1. Interesting that the servants of Pharaoh are reasonable

        2. They suggest that the men go

        3. Don’t you know that Egypt is destroyed

          1. Ironic word

          2. Alludes to Pharaoh’s statement, “I do not know


      2. Pharaoh does not understand what Yahweh has done

      3. “The Lord will certainly need to be with you if you take

        your little ones along” - NLT

        1. Pharaoh is making a wordplay on Yahweh

        2. He understands that Yahweh means God’s presence

        3. Pharaoh has made a mockery of Yahweh

    32. Verse 10:12-15

      1. Locusts

        1. Life threatening

        2. Completely destroy the land

        3. They are used primarily for divine judgment in the Old


        4. Used for divine judgment in the great Day of the Lord

        5. Revelation

          1. Iron jaws – metaphorical

          2. Most of John’s Day of the Lord language is taken

            from the Old Testament prophets

      2. Devastating event

      3. In any normal country this would destroy the population

        1. Because of Egypt’s climate it can replant everything in

          a couple months and at least survive

        2. The temple complex’s had vast storage bins

      4. Egyptian theology

        1. Isis, the god of life

        2. Seth, protector the crops

        3. Reminder that Yahweh is present

        4. If Pharaoh is truly a god he should be able to provide

          life for his people

    33. Verse 10:15-20

      1. Refers to the plague as a death

      2. It really just prefigures the final plague which is truly


      3. yom suph

        1. Literally “Sea of Reeds”

        2. Not actually the Red Sea

        3. The locusts were sent into just like Pharaoh’s army will

          be sent into the Sea of Reeds

        4. Not completely sure where the Sea of Reeds is

    34. Verse 10:21-23

      1. Egyptian theology

        1. Osiris, giver of life – Pharaoh’s deity

        2. The sun shone virtually everyday

      2. Darkness

        1. Thick darkness

        2. Could be felt

        3. Goshen is not affected

        4. Moses asks for a three-day journey into the wilderness

      3. Amos 5

        1. First of the prophets to mention darkness in the Day of

          the Lord

        2. Egypt’s darkness foreshadows the Day of the Lord

      4. This anticipates the last of the plagues

        1. The death of the first born occurs in the night

        2. This plague makes death itself tangible

      5. Echoes creation – return to the chaotic darkness before


    35. Verse 10:24-29

      1. Pharaoh’s hard heart once again

      2. Envelope: “see my face”

        1. Moses says Pharaoh will never see his face again because

          he will die

        2. Yahweh tells Moses that he cannot see His face and live

        3. Irony

          1. Pharaoh, who claims to be god and can be seen, will

            no longer be seen

          2. Yahweh, who cannot be seen, will reveal to Moses

            what can be seen

      3. The Israelites don’t believe any more than the Egyptians

    36. Verse 11:1-10

      1. Hebrew: naga

        1. Means “to touch”

        2. In this case it means to touch negatively

        3. Connects this plague with the Israelites who are

          supposed to “touch” the blood to the doorpost

      2. Mentions the two social extremes, from Pharaoh to slave

      3. Hebrew: tsach

        1. Means “cry” or “outcry”

        2. Root that appeared all the way through chapters 1-2 when

          the Israelites were crying out

    37. The narrative is now interrupted

      1. The style changes to liturgy

      2. Takes a whole chapter to explain the founding of Passover

      3. There seems to be a sequence in which liturgy encloses the

        stories and liturgy encloses the entire sequence

      4. Very well may be that liturgy was regarded as some sort of

        exalted language

      5. This technique has the ability of heightening the tension

  2. From Passover to Praise - 12:1-15:21

    1. Verse 12:1-14

      1. Ezekiel 45#45:18-20

        1. The only other place in the Bible where blood is placed

          on the door

        2. Blood smeared on the doorway of the temple

      2. Hebrew: pesach

        1. Passover

        2. One of the more important theological words

        3. Not mentioned very much in the OT

        4. Hezekiah, Josiah

        5. One of the three great holy days of the year

      3. Pesachim

        1. This is a document in the Mishna

        2. Devoted to explaining how Passover was done

        3. Dates around 300 A.D.

        4. Not exactly sure how accurate it is in explaining the OT

          observance of it

        5. Good reason to think that it is largely reliable

      4. Passover (a.k.a. Feast of Unleavened Bread)

        1. All the people would gather in the outer temple

        2. They would gather together in companies, family oriented

        3. The priests would stand in two rows

          1. In one row each priest had a silver basin which

            caught the blood

          2. In the other row each priest had a gold basin which

            caught the blood

        4. After the blood was collected it was passed from hand to

          hand all the way to the end of the line

        5. At the end of the line the last priest took hyssop and

          dipped it in the blood and sprinkled it in ritual
          manner on the alter

        6. All the while everyone was singing the Hallel (Psalm


        7. Hebrews 11#11:28 alludes to some of this

        8. Hyssop

          1. Mentioned only a few other times in the Bible

          2. Numbers 19#19:1-10, Psalm 51#51:7

        9. Jesus is clearly identified as the Passover Lamb in

          Christian theology

        10. It is some what confusing in trying to merge Deuteronomy

          16 and this passage

          1. Should be viewed in similar manner as the Synoptic


          2. There are clear differences, but they are not


        11. Feast of Unleavened Bread

          1. Causes problems because the Israelites were supposed

            to eat hurriedly and be ready to leave for the

          2. Many commentators argue that Moses picked up this

            tradition and merge it with the Passover event

          3. It is surprising to have a 7 day feast climaxed by

            an urgent meal, but that is the clearest reading

          4. Perhaps 7 is just a number that evokes the creation

            week that describes a new act that God will do

    2. Verse 12:21-28

      1. Hebrew: ebed

        1. Means “serve”

        2. Brings up the struggle between Yahweh and Pharaoh in who

          Israel will serve

        3. “observe this servitude forever”

      2. Lex taliones

        1. The punishment must fit the crime

        2. The smiting of the firstborn is justice for the massacre

          of the Hebrew babies earlier

        3. The point of the first 6 chapters is establishing the

          ethic of why God will send the plagues on the

        4. Because God is present, justice is done

        5. Exodus 34#34:6-7

        6. Christians identify with God through His mercy

        7. Jews identifies with God through His justice

          1. Both traditions are biblical

          2. Both need to be combined to get an accurate view of

            who God is

          3. New Testament justice occurs primarily in the end

            times (“in that day”)

        8. Unfortunately, we read about Israel’s suffering as if it

          didn’t matter because we know the end of the story

    3. Verse 12:29-32

      1. Hebrew: ebed

        1. Really “serve”

        2. Pharaoh consents to their serving God

      2. Pharaoh is not as urgent and adamant that they leave as he

        was that they stay earlier on

      3. “Take everything with you”

      4. “Bless me also”

        1. Pharaoh is the quintessential decreator

        2. He cares about no one but himself

      5. Clearest modern example is Soddam Husain

    4. Verse 12:33-36

      1. Lex taliones

        1. The Egyptians had plundered the Israelites for centuries

        2. Now the Israelites have the chance to plunder Egypt

      2. Getting out of Egypt isn’t really changing anything


    5. The Exodus is not the climatic event, but only the beginning of

      a journey to deal personally and relationally with Yahweh

    6. Verse 12:37-41

      1. Not sure where Succoth was at

      2. House of Rameses

      3. 600,000 men

        1. This means that there are over 2 million people

        2. On top of this there is cattle and other livestock

        3. This is a difficult number to understand

        4. There have not been any legitimate attempts to discount

          this number, however

        5. Hebrew: bene yisrael

          1. Children of Israel

          2. The consonantal number is 603, 551

          3. This number is only 1 digit removed from the exact

            account in Numbers

          4. Are the numbers intended to be mathematical units or


          5. We can’t be sure

        6. Apparently there are several people in this group that

          are not biological Israelites

      4. 430 years

        1. In Genesis it says 400 years

        2. In Galatians it says 250 years

        3. Several differing numbers

        4. 1 Kings 6#6:1 – 480=1446 as the mathematical number for

          the exodus

          1. 12x40=480: could argue for symbolic interpretation

          2. However, Judges 11#11:26 – 300 years, that puts us in

            the vicinity of 1446

      5. It is important to note that the biblical text, Exodus, is

        not concerned with the who, what, when, where… what is
        important is the theology

      6. If the Bible is quick to emphasize the theology then we

        ought to do the same

      7. Emphasize what occurred rather then when it occurred

    7. Verse 12:42-51

      1. Hebrew: shimmurim – “keeper”

        1. NASB – “to be observed”

        2. This word occurs only in this verse out of the whole


        3. It has a brilliant rhetorical effect

        4. “It is a night for keeping by Yahweh, it is night for

          keeping by the Israelites”

        5. The writer is enhancing the notion that this night will

          be celebrated forever

        6. This ties Israel and Yahweh into a relationship that is

          renewed annually at Passover

      2. Ordinance of the Passover

        1. No foreigners

        2. Must be circumcised

        3. No servants

        4. Must be inside – if it is taken outside or a bone is

          broken then it is possible that it could be found by

      3. The Israelites had been preparing for this moment

      4. Marched in formation, probably by clans, so that they could

        protect their families

      5. Incredibly difficult to maneuver that many people

      6. We are told more about how the Passover is supposed to be

        kept and not very much about the actual exodus

        1. Likewise, several chapters are devoted to the plagues

        2. Theology

    8. Verse 13:1-2

      1. Yahweh seems to be saying, “On the basis of the fact that I

        killed the firstborn of Egypt you are to return the
        firstborn to me”

      2. Israel has already been called Yahweh’s firstborn

      3. There must be a sacrifice to the Lord on the basis of the

        fact that the firstborn belongs to God – redemption

      4. This stands for all the firstborn: sons, daughters, slaves,


    9. Verse 13:3-4

      1. Very important concept: Remember

        1. Signs on the hand, forehead, etc.

        2. This was later taken literally in Judaism

      2. What does it mean to remember?

        1. Part of it is ritual (i.e. Passover)

        2. Surely more than pure static ritual is requested

        3. The Jewish tradition was that you relive it

        4. Passover was done in such a way that encourages the

          believer to relive the exodus moment

      3. In the ritual of the Christian calendar how can we relive

        the event, rather than just memorializing it?

        1. Two events in particular: The Lords Supper and Easter

        2. The challenge is creating a situation where this can be

          experienced thousands of years later

      4. Abib is the month

    10. Verse 13:5

      1. List of the nations

        1. Almost always ends with the Jebusites

        2. They are the inhabitants of Jerusalem

        3. Interesting, because Jerusalem does not become the

          centerpiece of the war until the time of David

      2. Conquest

        1. Joshua fights three major battles

        2. The first is in the area of Jerusalem and he defeats the

          Jebusites in battle, but does not take over the city

        3. Priority of Judah in the text, Jerusalem was in their


      3. Hittites were far to the north

      4. Amorites were in the area of chazor

      5. Hivites

        1. Not sure who or where they are

        2. Could be a mistake and might be the Horites

      6. Milk and honey

        1. Canaanite proverb

        2. Should not be taken literally

        3. The land was much more luscious than it is now

    11. Verse 13:6-10

      1. Absolutely no leaven

      2. Tell your son

        1. In almost all the perpetuating of the ceremonies it is

          the father telling the son

        2. This is God’s way of continuing His relationship with


        3. Deut. 6:7 – “teach” means “repeat”

      3. Our culture is different, we hire out everything

        1. We expect the schools to teach our kids

        2. We expect youth pastors to teach our kids

        3. However, the clearly stated means of teaching God’s plan

          in the Bible is fathers telling sons (or mothers
          telling daughters)

        4. The methodology is repeating

      4. God’s plan has always been through the family

        1. This teaching must be pervasive

        2. It cannot be a 20 minute family devotional

    12. Verse 13:11-16

      1. Firstborn theology

      2. The donkey is not supposed to be sacrificed, but because it

        is the firstborn it must be redeemed

      3. Verse 14-16 is the Old Testament Kerygma

        1. Those facts demand a faith response

        2. The Law hasn’t been given yet but when it is then that

          becomes the way a Hebrew responds in faith

    13. Verse 13:17-18

      1. “The way of the Philistines”

        1. Anachronism – phrase from a later time imposed back onto

          the text

        2. The Philistines were not there in Moses’ time

        3. This path was heavily guarded by the Egyptians

      2. God doesn’t send them down this path because He knows that

        they are not ready to fight

      3. It is very easy for us to look at these events as a flight

        from Egypt to Israel

        1. In reality, it is a journey toward something, not

          necessarily Canaan

        2. This is a journey toward establishing the fact that

          Yahweh is present

          1. This means a full and final defeat of Pharaoh and

            his armies

          2. This is why they meander and take their time

          3. Yahweh is drawing Pharaoh into a battle

        3. If Israel had gone three days straight into the

          wilderness then Pharaoh couldn’t have followed

    14. Verse 13:19-22

      1. Since God gave this land to Israel it is imperative that

        they all be buried in the land

      2. Furthermore, it is important to be buried with your family,

        in the same cave

      3. The Israelites carried false deities with them in the

        wilderness according to Amos

      4. Yahweh is demonstrating that He is the divine warrior

    15. Verse 14:1-4

      1. They turn around so that the water is to the east of the


      2. This provokes Pharaoh to come after them

      3. Hebrew wordplay: kabod

        1. Same root for harden his heart

        2. Same root for I will receive honor

    16. Verse 14:5-9

      1. Each Egyptian chariot had 3 soldiers in it

        1. 1 soldier drove

        2. 1 soldier protected with a shield

        3. 1 soldier fought

      2. Pharaoh’s 600 chariots are the main striking force

      3. The other chariots are used for enveloping purposes

      4. Could have upwards of 1200-1500 chariots

      5. Used in this passage

        1. 14 times every chariot

        2. 12 times every horseman

        3. The entire army

      6. The Hebrews don’t have hardly any weapons

    17. Verse 14:10-12

      1. The Israelites are scared to death

      2. Sarcastic response

      3. Pharaoh had no intention of killing them, he wanted his

        slaves back

      4. We convince ourselves that if we see miracles that they will

        somehow fix everything

      5. Exodus points out that miracles do not solve the human


      6. The Israelites attack Moses just like in 5:21, 6:9, 15:24

      7. The greatest challenge that we will have in our whole life

        is relational

      8. Echoes Adam and Eve, blaming pattern – Gen. 3

        1. This sets the pattern for the human relationship

        2. This is why divorce is so rampant

        3. God shows His love by sustaining relationship with us

          despite or childish actions

    18. Verse 14:13

      1. Moses doesn’t take it personally

      2. It seems that never seeing Egyptians again will solve all

        the problems!

      3. The reality is that after the Egyptians drown there are new

        avenues and new people for our selfishness and our fear

      4. We live our lives subservient to the philosophy of *“if


        1. This is the way we think

        2. If only

        3. Philippians 4#4:13 – I have learned the secret of success,

          to be content in all things

    19. Verse 14:14-18

      1. This whole story reverberates the language and ideas of


        1. “Dry land” – same word as in Genesis

        2. The Creation God is reminded them that He can create dry

          land for them, as their backs are to the sea

        3. Genesis 6-9; God drowns the wicked and the dry land is

          the evidence of God’s grace

      2. The word “to harden” and “to honor” come from the same

        Hebrew root

    20. Verse 14:19-22

      1. God has led the Israelites to a position where their back is

        to the sea

      2. The only thing separating them from destruction is the Lord

        as He moves the cloud in between the Israelites and the

      3. Moses lifts his staff and the Lord creates dry land

      4. God is going to great extremes to perpetuate His

        relationship with them – for God to be true to the

    21. Verse 14:23-25

      1. Pharaoh acts as if the plagues never happened!

      2. He makes a very poor military decision by putting his whole

        army in the sea

      3. The chariots may have struggled from the mud or sandy ground

    22. Verse 14:26-28

      1. The divine symbol, Moses’ staff, raises once more and the

        sea engulfs the Egyptians

      2. The Creator God is stronger than the decreator god

      3. No survivors

    23. Verse 14:29-31

      1. This is not the way that normal relationships work

      2. In all the OT Yahweh only drowns the Egyptians once

      3. This is an act to demonstrate that Yahweh is present

      4. True relationships are those that occur and function on more

        realistic levels like: obedience, faith, and trust

      5. It is no accident that Yahweh calls for the above 3 things

        when the waters settle

      6. Real relationships have to have law, they cannot be

        sustained on modern western weddings

      7. It is indeed an incredible demonstration of God’s power –

        but if we say this everyday it wouldn’t change a single
        thing in our lives

      8. Clearly, as will be seen, this event does not solve the

        relational problems of faith and trust

      9. Oscar Wildes – “If the gods wished to punish us they would

        simply answer our prayers”

      10. Unfortunately our prayers are based on our “if only’s”

      11. If we believe in Him we will obey Him; if we don’t we will

        believe in ourselves

    24. Verse 15:1-18

      1. The victory is celebrated with poetry

      2. Poetry is very hard to translate but it is beautiful in the


      3. Verse 8 likens the east wind to God’s nostrils

      4. Verse 9 gives 6 first person references

      5. Yahweh will reign forever – that’s the heart of the story

      6. This has evidence that parts of the poem was reworked at a

        later date

      7. Demonstrates that in the Jewish tradition historical events

        are memorialized in song

    25. Verse 15:19-22

      1. The story of Moses begins with women and the act of

        deliverance is closed with women

      2. The faithful activity of women creates an envelope from

        Exodus 1-15

      3. Similar to when David succeeds in battle against the


      4. Women are named in chapter 1-2 when Pharaoh isn’t!

    26. Summary

      1. Pattern

        1. It is inevitable that we will cry out – that’s apart of

          life outside of the garden

        2. Yahweh then gives us a word and a deed

        3. That word and deed results in deliverance

        4. The deliverance results in songs of praise

      2. When Adam and Eve sinned were they cursed?

        1. NO!

        2. Adam and Eve were punished

        3. Satan was cursed

      3. In a fallen world there will always be thorns and thistles

        1. Life will never be like it was in the garden

        2. There is eternally adversity in real-world living

        3. Without pain we wouldn’t know our need for relationship

          with God

        4. We would never desire a relationship with God without

          thorns and thistles

      4. The people who are highlighted in Revelation were over


      5. It was significant for the Israel to go through a difficult

        time for them to understand their need for a relationship
        with God

      6. God who is the author of all historical events uses those

        events consistently to force us back into a relationship
        with Him

      7. Psalms

        1. The person in the Psalms experiences orientation

          1. Orientation means life is good, life is smooth

            nothing is going wrong

        2. God then brings about disorientation

          1. Disorientation is when our lives are interrupted we

            are now in pain and we don’t like it

          2. This can come from God Himself, Satan, life

            experience, ourselves, wherever

        3. It is precisely in that mode of disorientation that we

          have a pure form of lament

          1. This is where God finds us
        4. God then brings out new orientation

          1. Without disorientation there will be no change,

            there will be no new orientation

        5. The consistent result of new orientation is praise

      8. This Psalms pattern is a microcosm of what happens in the

        book of Exodus

      9. This pattern is how our personal relationships work as well

        1. Most of us are content to live in orientation

        2. But the true life is found in new orientation which

          comes through disorientation

      10. Marriage

        1. One of the most important words in marriage is change

        2. If you don’t do it, you won’t make it

        3. You have to adapt to the different seasons of life

      11. When the hard times come are we going to demand that we need

        to go back to the old or will we press on to the new?

      12. Curiously, even if where we are at is miserable we want to

        stay; we do not want to change

      13. All of God’s saving acts in the OT refer back to this Sea of

        Reeds story

      14. Why is there so little text given to such a major event?

        1. This story is another event in the story that shows that

          God is present

        2. The major event in the NT (Jesus’ death and

          resurrection) is told in just a few verses also

        3. They were thinking theologically whereas we think


  1. The Wilderness Wanderings - 15:22-18:27

    1. Verse 15:22-27

      1. Yahweh is celebrated as a warrior

        1. He uses no weapons

        2. He uses His creation

        3. Military might in the Scriptures is almost always

          pictured negatively

        4. The church is in the same capacity as the Remnant was in

          OT Israel

      2. Yahweh is healer

        1. God is not interested in answering every complaint with

          a positive response

        2. God is using these events to teach them how to function

          in a relationship with Him

        3. Relationships

          1. Communication

          2. Commitment

          3. How does belief occur?

            1. Conflict

            2. Without conflict you are not exposing the weak

              points in your relationship

        4. The result of the first plague is that they cannot drink

          the water

          1. Now the same problem occurs again

          2. Why would God juxtapose the trial and the plague?

            1. God’s saving acts are consistently anchored in


            2. By putting the Israelites in the same position

              as the Egyptians God is reminding them that He
              has the power to plague and the power to

            3. God is establishing the theology of His presence

      3. Not sure where Elim is at

    2. Verse 16:1-4

      1. Wilderness of Sin

        1. This is the name of the moon god

        2. The move on the 15th day also, which means

          there was a full moon

        3. Perhaps reminiscent of Genesis 1 creation

      2. Miracle after miracle and yet complaints still arise

      3. “Grumbling”

        1. Dominant characteristic of this chapter

        2. Appears 7 times in this chapter

        3. Grumbling is a form of relating

          1. Most likely destructive but still relating

          2. Counterproductive

        4. God is committed to deepening and continuing His

          relationship with Israel

        5. Sharing negative thoughts in a constructive manner is

          essential to a relationship

        6. By in large, rarely is the fight about what the problem


          1. There is usually an underlying cause

          2. What is the real occasion for the grumbling?

          3. It’s really lack of faith not lack of water

          4. It is our nature to use a substitute rather than

            what we are really concerned about

        7. The way in which grumbling/disagreement are approached

          is most important

        8. God embraces our doubts and concerns in the Psalms – the

          idea of new orientation mentioned above

    3. Verse 16:5

      1. Same verb used for raining hail on the Egyptians

      2. Here bread is giving by means of “rain”

      3. The 8th plague – locust come up and cover the


      4. Here quail come up and cover the land

      5. “My law”

        1. Ironic because the Law hasn’t been given yet

        2. The most dominant theological point in this chapter is

          the emphasis on the 7th day

          1. This is a law that has been in place since the

            beginning of time

          2. This is a creation order law

          3. We are not under any of the Law

          4. However, this law precedes the giving of the Law and

            should indeed have some consequence for us

          5. Adam and Eve most likely followed intuitively if not

            specifically the Sabbath law

          6. We are not under Sabbath laws (the ones contained in

            the Mosaic Law and Jewish traditions) but we are
            under the Sabbath concept and as believers we
            should in some way sanctify a Sabbath day

          7. This does not necessarily have to be Saturday but it

            really does need to be done

    4. Verse 16:7

      1. The primary thing that God wants is for the Israelites to

        see His glory

      2. God knows that providing food will not solve the problem

      3. Intersects with Moses in Exodus 32 about “show me Your


      4. The bread and the quail are not the answer to their

        problems, seeing the glory of the Lord is the final answer
        (John 1#1:14)

    5. Verse 16:8-30

      1. Image of God

        1. Being made in the image of God means more than a statue

        2. It includes that we can do what no other part of the

          creation can do, talk

        3. This is a unique gift to humans

        4. Too often the gifts that He gives are the ones that we


      2. When we are grumbling we are in a decreator role

      3. Communication is the single most important thing in life

      4. They called it Manna which means “what is it?”

      5. God speaks a lot about gathering it

      6. God says only take what you can use

      7. “Gather” appears 9 times in this short unit

      8. Gather 6 days and gather twice as much as you need so you

        can rest on the Sabbath

      9. Gathering commands

        1. Gather

        2. Gather in a precise way

        3. Don’t gather on the 7 day

      10. This story is repeated in John 6

      11. The gather story goes directly back to Genesis

        1. Adam and Eve were provided with free food but they had

          to gather it

        2. They were given similar instructions

        3. Don’t gather from the tree of knowledge of good and evil

      12. Primary point is that God is King

        1. As King God provides for His people

        2. Just as in Genesis 1-2 God works through a vice-regent

          (Adam and Eve)

        3. Here the vice-regent is Moses

      13. 1 Thessalonians – If you do not work you do not eat

      14. God the King provides for us but our responsibility is to


        1. When human beings receive without working something

          bizarre happens

        2. Something bad happens to our thinking when we do not

          work and yet receive

        3. Work is spiritually nurturing

        4. Work is God’s gift to us

        5. We are made in His image – God works, we work; God

          rests, we rest

        6. There are also specific ways to work (cf. all the

          gathering rules)

        7. The climax is you must rest

      15. The Sabbath law is given authority long before the Mosaic


        1. It is based on creation order

        2. We might be missing out on the blessing of God by not

          being true to His Sabbath model

        3. It is equally important for your spiritual well being to


        4. It is spiritually nurturing to rest

        5. God has instituted the rhythm of life in Genesis 1-2

        6. There are consequences for choosing to live our lives

          outside of His rhythm

      16. Rest means strengthening our relationships

        1. With God

        2. With others

        3. The commandment to love God and love others comes into


    6. Verse 16:31-36

      1. Joshua 5#5:12 says when the Manna stopped

      2. Even in that situation they are still in a gathering


    7. Verse 17:1-4

      1. They were in a tough situation, you can only go 3-4 days

        without water

      2. They insist on putting God to the test

      3. Instead of using communication whereby they might have a

        healthy way of relating they choose to attack their leader

      4. They are ready to kill Moses

      5. God is trying to get the Israelites to learn how to follow a


      6. [Moses and Monarchy]

    8. Verse 17:5-7

      1. This is the third time out of 4 complaints that Moses is

        afraid for his life

      2. Serious lessons need to be learned about how they relate to


      3. “Strike”

        1. Same staff Moses used to strike the Nile

        2. Now he uses it to strike the rock and bring forth good


        3. Water symbolizes life

        4. God consistently requires that His work be done through


        5. Moses uses his staff which is clearly a symbol of


      4. For the next 4 centuries the Israelites will not follow

        their leaders

      5. Foreshadow that Israel will not follow Christ

      6. Furthermore, foreshadows the church

      7. God is trying to prepare Israel to accept and follow a king

      8. If God raises up a leader then he is god to the people

      9. When we try to manipulate God to fit us that is testing God

        1. Testing is demanding that God meat us on our terms

        2. Trusting is the exact opposite of testing

    9. Verse 17:8-16

      1. The Amalekites may have attacked because there is water at

        that place now

      2. There has never been water there before but there is now

      3. The Amalekites are one of the most hated of ancient peoples

      4. God has just created water and now Amalek is acting as a

        decreator by trying to take it away

      5. God does not fight the battle for them this time but uses


        1. This is the first mention of Joshua as a military leader

        2. He was somehow at the status of a major general over


      6. Moses (and his staff) is still the medium which God uses to

        win the battle

      7. God centralizes His personal power and authority in Moses

        1. Not one king in Israel ever had the power that Moses had

        2. God intended to relate to Israel through a king

        3. This is a God’s model for Israel

        4. God’s number one plan (which goes back to Gen. 49) was

          to raise up royal leaders

        5. The problem is not kingship; it is not good or bad

          1. If it functions according to God’s rules then it is


          2. If it functions according to man’s rules then it is


        6. Kingship that revolves strictly around authority is


        7. God’s model was to invest Himself fully in one man and

          use him as he is in a proper subservient relationship
          with God

        8. Moses is the kind of man God wants to use

          1. Utterly obedient

          2. Humble – pious

          3. Speaks to God face to face

        9. The way Moses led Israel is the way that God’s wants

          successive leaders to lead Israel

      8. The Amalekites continue to remain throughout the OT as an

        enemy of God’s people

        1. They “kind of” replace Pharaoh

        2. They become decreators

    10. Chapter 18:1-16

      1. This chapter tells far more about the transfer of authority

        than the actual Exodus itself

      2. Moses’ father-in-law plays a large role and then disappears

      3. There is more happening here than a family reunion

      4. It is possible that the text is reflecting Jethro’s

        commitment to becoming a follower of Israel’s God

        1. There is sort of a conversion sequence

        2. Jethro hears, speaks with Moses, is convinced, they go

          into a tent (a predecessor of the tabernacle?), Yahweh
          is greater than all other gods (faith affirmation),
          had a meal with all elders of Israel

        3. This order of events very well may be a covenant being

          made here

        4. If so, it is a covenant made in light of God’s saving

          acts of humanity through Israel

    11. Chapter 18:17-27

      1. Moses is judging before Sinai

        1. There are already laws

        2. Echoes chapter 2 – when there is a dispute between two


      2. Some say this is the foundation of the institution of the

        judicial system of Israel

      3. There is probably more to it than that

      4. What does this establish about kingship?

        1. In the ancient near east the king in all cultures was

          specially franchised with keeping the law – justice

          1. This is one of the most important tasks of a king

          2. Moses is king

          3. Moses, as a king, has a prime responsibility to

            establish justice

          4. Everyone must enjoy justice

          5. David is not attending to the affairs of his kingdom

            in 2 Samuel 15, Absalom is doing it

          6. Kingship must be established around laws

        2. Administrative issue that is to the benefit of everyone

        3. Delegation

        4. Moses is not on an ego trip

      5. They are probably following customary law at this time

      6. Deuteronomy 17#17:14-20

      7. Passage may be similar to Numbers 11#11:17

      8. Two main points of this passage

        1. Conversion of Jethro to a follower of the Lord

        2. Establish Moses’ kingship and how it functions

  1. Law and Covenant - 19:1-24:18

    1. Chapter 19:1-6

      1. Climax of the entire book is right here, chapters 19-20

      2. Arrived at Sinai at the exact day of the new moon

      3. They will stay here for 11 months

      4. “I bore you on eagles’ wings”

        1. Deut. 32:11

        2. Terminology is redemptive

        3. Creation account (Gen. 1:2) is related through bird


          1. “Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the


          2. Same verb that means “nesting”

      5. More than just a covenant is going on

      6. God is calling a unique people for Himself

        1. My own Possession (special)

        2. Kingdom of Priests

          1. Missionary imperative

          2. All Israel is assigned a task of ministering to

            other nations

          3. Their task is to obey the law to save the world

          4. God is saving Israel in order to save all the

            nations of the earth

        3. Holy nation

    2. Chapter 19:7-17

      1. “All that the Lord has asked we will do” – reminiscent of

        Joshua 24

      2. Perhaps this is not a making of a new covenant

        1. It is an extension of the Abrahamic covenant

        2. There is something new, but perhaps not a whole new


        3. If it is not a brand new covenant than perhaps it is

          Israel agreeing to keep the laws of the land

      3. Covenant (cf. on “The Whole Law as Ethical”)

        1. There is no such thing as an unconditional covenant

        2. They are all unending

        3. Because they are divinely ordained they continue for all


        4. All covenant’s are organized under the Abrahamic


      4. Only place in the OT where all the people are said to have


      5. Only place in the OT where God is heard without an


      6. This also happens so that the people will believe Moses

      7. Forever does not mean forever

      8. God will work powerfully through Moses and they are expected

        to follow

      9. Symbolizes their cleansing

      10. Anticipates Leviticus

      11. An individual must prepare himself/herself to come into the

        presence of God

      12. God has graciously come down in their midst and shows

        Himself to all Israel

        1. God says come close, but no closer than this

        2. There is a contrast here with the NT

        3. Jesus Christ has removed the border between God and us

      13. Sex is forbidden because of the possibility of blood which

        would make one unclean

    3. Chapter 19:18-25

      1. These events and this Theophany must be interpreted in

        relational terms

      2. One of the best developed Theophanies in the Bible

      3. Theophany – God of light

        1. God on a mountain top

        2. Distance between God and people

        3. People must wash and get ready

        4. Thunder and lightning

          1. Same word as in Gen. 3:8

          2. Before the fall it was not as frightening

        5. Thick cloud

        6. Trumpet sound – supernatural ram’s horn

      4. If God is relational, why is He scarring the living day

        lights out of them?

        1. Puts the relationship in the proper perspective

        2. It is explaining that they have to understand how to

          relate to God

        3. Shows the high price of sin

        4. Before the fall it was not this way

        5. After fall it has to be this way

      5. God has come down

        1. This is a certain revisit from before the fall

        2. It is as if God has rescued the human race by coming

          down to dwell permanently

        3. This is the first time from before the fall that He

          comes down for residency

        4. God only takes His presence away at the end of the OT in

          order to send Christ down

      6. It would be easy to interpret these events in the OT terms

        of clean and unclean

      7. However, it is more accurate to recognize that God is

        choosing to relate to them through the person of Moses

        1. This is the mediator concept

        2. This is a model of what Christ will do

        3. The people were clean, they had sanctified themselves

        4. God has chosen to speak through His divinely chosen


      8. Priests

        1. There was some sort of organization before the


        2. Not sure how they came to be or why, but they were there

        3. There was animal sacrifice before the Law

      9. This is not the beginning of a new distinct covenant, but

        the edge of fulfilling the Abrahamic covenant

      10. The primary reason for the giving of the law revolves around

        the concept of land

        1. Most of the Mosaic laws revolve around how people live

          with one another in the land

        2. Also how they live with God in the land

      11. Perhaps it is more accurate to think about this in terms of

        fulfilling the Abrahamic covenant

    4. Chapter 20:1-2 and Background

      1. God proceeds to give them the ten commandments

      2. In Jewish thought, these are referred as “the ten words”

      3. The ten words are introduced by the preamble in verse 2

        1. The reason for obeying the law is the identity and

          activity of the One giving them

        2. This is not mere legalism

        3. These are laws given in the context of relationship

        4. Keeping law for the sake of law keeping is useless; but

          keeping law for the sake of relationship is what it is

      4. The ten are not magical

        1. This list is only reduplicated in Deut. 5

        2. The other 6 or so times they are mentioned they are not

          exactly the same

        3. The point is the concept of these, not the exact word

          for word laws

      5. The ten revolve around four concepts (from Survey of OT by

        Hill and Walton)

        1. Authority – 1, 5

        2. Dignity – 2, 6, 7, 8

        3. Commitment – 3, 9

        4. Rights and Privileges – 4, 10

      6. A surer foundation:

        1. The first four are how we are to relate to God

        2. The last six are how we relate to other people

        3. This is in accordance with Jesus in Matthew 22#22:37-29

      7. Ironically, law is situated permanently in the context of


      8. Love is related directly to doing

      9. Most important theological word in the OT: hesed

        1. Steadfast love

        2. The kind of love that you show precisely because you are

          in a covenant relationship

      10. The relationship comes first, then the law

        1. The laws exist to show us how we relate

        2. Important to remember that Israel was God’s people

          before the law

        3. The law was given in order further the relationship

          between the two

        4. Jesus, “If you love Me, obey”

      11. Matthew 5 – “Not one jot or tittle will pass away”

        1. Whatever Christ was saying, he was confirming the Law

        2. He came to fulfill the Law

        3. How can Christ say that when by this time there are

          already laws that cannot be kept

        4. The Law of Moses was given to a specific people for a

          specific time in a specific place

        5. In what sense is the Law eternal?

          1. All Scripture becomes useful because all Scripture

            is applicable

          2. The secret: the Law is eternal in the sense that

            every law ever given has a truth behind it that
            does not fade

          3. Every law has timeless truth to it

          4. Essentially, everybody has rights

          5. It would be ludicrous to take Paul’s commands


            1. i.e. to Timothy “take a little wine for your

              stomach” literally

            2. It really means, go to the doctor for us

      12. It is law for relationship’s sake, not law for law’s sake

      13. Wherever there is relationship there has to be law

        1. The more intimate the relationship the more laws

        2. Law has no life apart from relationship

      14. The fact that God wanted everyone to hear seems to suggest

        that He wanted everyone to feel that personal relationship
        with Him

      15. We are not legally under the law; if so then we are also

        under the punishments

      16. But truthfully we are under the law

    5. Chapter 20:3-17 – Ten Words

      1. The first law excludes all others, relationally specific;

        like marriage

      2. What is so wrong with image making?

        1. We assume the role of creator when we make an image

        2. We become pseudo-creators

        3. We bear the image and likeness of God

          1. God created us

          2. “Image and likeness” usually refers to statues

          3. God created us as statues in that we are like Him

            because we are alive

      3. Third or fourth generations

        1. God is teaching that nationally God’s judgment can fall

          on subsequent generations

        2. Shows His justice

      4. Do not take the name of the Lord your God in vain

        1. We usually think of this in obscenities or using it in


          1. Not True

          2. This is just bad taste

        2. It means choosing to be part of this covenant and then

          not being true it

        3. All covenants were concluded with the employment of the

          divine name to seal it, so to break the covenant would
          be to violate the name

        4. This is a major reason why divorce is such an atrocity,

          marriage is taking an oath under the divine name

        5. Jesus said specifically, “Let your yes be yes, and your

          no, no”

      5. Remember the Sabbath

        1. Already discussed in the context of creation (cf. above)

        2. The law is as much an act of worship as it is avoidance

          of work

        3. Wherever there is a law there is danger of legalism

        4. This is a part of creation-keeping

        5. Sabbath keeping must result in worship

        6. It is the presence of worship as much as the absence of

          work that is the point of the command

      6. Honor your father and mother

        1. This seems to be more of a command for grown children in

          light of elderly parents

        2. Jesus was infuriated with the Pharisees concerning their

          practices about this

          1. Qorban – claiming that their work and money were

            dedicated to God

          2. The reality is that they need to care for their


        3. Nursing homes are very questionable in light of this


        4. “That your days may be prolonged”

          1. Model for creation order

          2. Not so much an absolute command

        5. In situations where a choice must be made Jesus said

          that we are to choose Him first – “hate father and

      7. You shall not murder

        1. We don’t have the right to murder because human beings

          are made in God’s image

        2. Murdering with your speech is every bit as culpable as

          literally (James, Proverbs)

        3. This command is addressing individuals in a relational


        4. What effect does this have on capital punishment? War?

          1. Does the state have the right to exercise these


          2. Clearly in the OT God sanctioned capital punishment,

            but that does not mean that that is God’s desire
            for all nations for all times

          3. Paul sanctions state authority in Romans 13 (the

            same authority that ultimately executed him)

        5. This is also a creational order law, not just a part of

          the Law of Moses

      8. You shall not commit adultery

        1. Simply a violation of creation order

        2. Violation of covenant keeping

        3. Reminds us of the primacy of the family unit

        4. The perpetuation of the family is sacred

        5. God often times works through the sin itself

          1. In David’s case his multiple wives caused a lot of


          2. His children went against each other and against

            David and caused a lot of problems in his family
            later in his life

      9. You shall not steal

        1. A violation of a person, not just taking there stuff

        2. What makes this a crime is that the person is violated

        3. Possessions are not as important as persons

        4. Stealing is a relational crime, not just wealth

        5. It is the act of violation of the community that makes

          it a crime

      10. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor

        1. This is a great deal more than just testifying in a

          court room

        2. It includes anything that undermines someone else’s


        3. Anytime one’s speech tears someone else down

        4. This is very destructive in a local church context

      11. You shall not covet your neighbor…

        1. The problem here is more than just illicit desires

        2. In Hebrew thought it is inevitable desires that lead to


        3. Must not covet anything that belongs to another person

        4. Huge problem in our culture

        5. Paul gave the anecdote – “I have learned to be content

          in whatever state I am in”

      12. Summary

        1. These commands establish relational principles

        2. These ten words form the basis of all law as we know it

        3. We need to recognize that all the laws are based on

          relationship to God and to one another

        4. It is not adequate to avoid breaking these ten

        5. The real goal is deepening the relationship of the


        6. Our success is measured by our ability to deepen

          community relationships

        7. Our obedience to God should flow from the right heart


    6. Chapter 20:18-26

      1. Giving of the law was punctuated with a Theophany

        1. people in right frame of mind: fearful

        2. Elevates Moses to a unique position regarding the people

      2. The alter you are making must not be a permanent alter

        1. Perhaps this is anticipating the day when they will come

          into the promised land

        2. At that time there will be a permanent alter in the


      3. Nakedness not exposed echoes Noah

    7. How do we think about law?

      1. We tend to read law as if each law is sacred and eternal

        1. The reality is most of these are time-bound

        2. In other words, the slave laws no longer are useful

          because we do not have slaves

      2. At least ten times there are laws about oxen – we don’t have


      3. Every law has a principle behind it that is eternal

        1. The whole Mosaic Law needs to be thought of like this

        2. In Judaism the law took on a specific nature – 613 laws

        3. That is not the correct way to think about it

        4. It is the truths that originated the laws in the first


        5. We should not have a static concept of the law, but


        6. The 613 laws might be emblematic of the fact that we

          need law

        7. We seem to have codified the law, rather than seeing

          that these Ten Words need to be applied in every case

      4. Jesus – “Not one jot or tittle will pass away”

        1. Jesus consistently uses hyperbole

        2. Perhaps this is related

        3. Jesus reserves the right to himself to apply law as he

          saw fit

        4. Law needs to be fluid because times change and

          situations are unique

      5. 21:7-11

        1. About selling women into slavery

        2. This law cannot continue today

        3. The principle is equal rights

      6. Paul’s entire ethic is based on the Torah in light of Jesus

        1. Paul said that the Law must take a subordinate role to


        2. In the OT the Law was the organizing principle

        3. In the NT Christianity is the organizing principle and

          the law is subordinate

        4. All law is current for Israel in so far as it does not

          interfere with a Christian mandate, i.e., that all
          people come to Christ

      7. All law must be administered under the twin heading of “love

        God and love one another”

      8. There is a huge difference between law-keeping and legalism

        1. Legalism is commitment to an enshrined code

        2. Law-keeping comes from a commitment to a relationship

      9. Have we codified law when it was not intended to be


      10. The Ten Words are largely creational

        1. Recognition of equality of all persons under the law

          1. In God’s perfect plan there is no hierarchy

          2. In the garden there was perfect union

        2. Valuing of human life over property

          1. Human life is far more sacred than any form of


          2. This is a unique principle in the Ancient Near East

        3. Mixture of the secular and spiritual

          1. Divisions in law between secular and sacred are


          2. All of life is in one category

        4. Philosophy of Hebrew law is lex taliones

          1. There must be a just punishment for the crime

          2. “Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth”

        5. Hebrew law is built around the concept of retribution

          1. The criminal must make restitution to the victim

          2. Restitution is necessary for justice

    8. Chapters 21-24

      1. Widely referred to as the book of the covenant

      2. In every case, these are simply an expansion of laws from

        the Ten Words

      3. This was not designed to be a “law code” but rather an

        expansion on the Ten Words

      4. In essence, these are examples of how the Ten Words apply

      5. When you start with “idea commandments” like the Ten Words

        it expands exponentially in order to suffice for all the
        different situations

      6. A lot of the laws in these chapters may very well be

        specific decisions that judges made in individual

      7. We consistently underestimate the fact that God inspired the

        judges to make truthful decisions

    9. Chapter 23

      1. Immediately juxtaposed to the commandments is a land


      2. The first commandment is repeated at the end

    10. Chapter 24

      1. Every last component of covenant making is in this chapter

      2. Whether a new covenant is being made or whether it is an

        extension of the Abrahamic Covenant, it is covenant

      3. Echoes Joshua 24

      4. Echoes New Testament Upper Room

        1. “This is the blood of my covenant”

        2. Covenant meal

      5. This is a covenant meal that is supposed to be repeated at

        least once per generation

      6. Echoes the love feast at the end of the ages

      7. Meal sharing (in Ancient Near East) is always in the context

        of covenant relationship

      8. Communion

        1. We should look at communion as if we are taking a

          covenant, not a memorial

        2. The meal should be a renewal of the covenant

        3. Pledging ourselves to be true to the covenant once again

        4. If this is true than we have equated the New Covenant

          with law

        5. “If you love Me, you will obey My commandments”

      9. Law is the written evidence of grace

      10. 1 Corinthians 11

        1. Violating koinonia

        2. This is violating covenant

      11. Verse 9-11

        1. We know that they could not have seen God

        2. Several passages state that humans cannot see God

        3. What it has to mean is that they saw a Theophany

        4. They saw some form of God that he wanted make visible

        5. Why does he say that they “beheld God” when everyone

          knew they didn’t?

          1. Divine presence = relationship

          2. God is enhancing their relationship

          3. This is the establishment of the relationship

        6. God does work in a hierarchical relationship

      12. Verse 12-18

        1. Joshua is only mentioned 3 times in Exodus, chapter 17,

          24, 32

        2. For Moses and Joshua to be absent for 40 days is

          certainly a risky thing

        3. The number 40 is used 85 times in the Scriptures

        4. Shakespearean foreshadow – we know something bad is

          going to happen

    11. Summary

      1. Chapter 19-20

        1. Establish Moses as Mediator – 19:16-35

        2. The purpose for the Theophany is to center reverence and

          attention of the people on God who is giving them Law

        3. That they may be “tested” (15:25; 16:4) in light of Law


        4. The 10 Words: only Dt. 5:5-21 is exactly parallel.

          10th Law first appears in 34:28 and the
          division into two tablets is first stated in 34:1.
          Notes difference from Dt. 5 in 20:9-11

      2. Chapters 20:22-23:33 – The Book of the Covenant. This is

        clearly an expansion of the Ten Words. How should the
        expansion be viewd?

        1. 23:20-33 – Law and promise (characteristic of


      3. Chapter 24:1-18 – Covenant formation

      4. Chapter 25-31 – Tabernacle (forms of worship because of

        Divine Presence on Journey)

        1. To describe in detail an idea of something that is not


        2. To create a concept in the minds of those who have no


        3. To anticipate apostasy and indifference by emphasizing


          1. Apostasy is begun by ignoring the details of God’s


          2. This turns into something bigger and bigger

        4. To emphasize consequence and character of Divine


      5. Chapter 32 is an exact contrast with 25-31

        1. God initiated People initiated

        2. Willing offering requested Golden Calf

        3. Painstaking preparations Aaron commands gold

        4. Lengthy building process Hastily constructed

        5. Safeguard holy, present God God is accessible to all

        6. Invisible God Visible god

        7. Personal active God Impersonal statue god

        8. Moses Aaron

          1. Leadership motif

          2. When Moses is on the mountain there is chaos in the


          3. This sets the stage for Israelites history

          4. When Israel is without a leader for 4 centuries

            after Joshua dies the results are the same as
            chapter 32

          5. The model given is that God interacts through a

            mediator leader like Moses

  2. The Plan for the Tabernacle - 25:1-31:18

    1. God consistently uses known constructs to reveal new truths

      1. In the vast majority of cases God uses things already known

        to reveal himself

      2. Ancient Near East

        1. All deities had place of residence

        2. Every major deity had a city that he/she was king of

        3. The deity had a dwelling place

        4. Every temple faced east

        5. Every temple had sacrificial areas

      3. Using known constructs is inherently given to problems

        because the people may import the religious ideas of the
        known construct on to God’s use of the construct

    2. Differences between the Tabernacle and other temples

      1. Portable sanctuary

      2. Purpose of the temple is for relationship vs. being fed in

        the pagan gods

      3. That God might be with his people and his people might learn

        how to be with their God

      4. God seems to have in his plan from the beginning that

        Jerusalem would be the resting place of the tabernacle

      5. Tabernacle words

        1. ohel - tent

          1. Tent of the Lord

          2. House of the tent

          3. Tent of the house of God

        2. moed – tent of meeting (over 125 times)

        3. mishcen – dwelling place

        4. mikdosh – holy place, sanctuary

        5. What really stands out is that this is the *meeting


        6. Tent of meeting should be the primary reference to it

    3. Symbol of all creation

      1. Garden 25-31

        1. The tabernacle is presented in perfection

        2. And also all of the other religious things

      2. Fall 32

        1. The fall of Israel

        2. Sin occurs when Adam is gone, here Moses is gone and sin


      3. Redemption 33-40

        1. God restores the relationship

        2. Exactly like in Genesis 3

        3. God reaffirms his presence with Israel by restating all

          the tabernacle and religious laws and regulations

        4. Moses becomes the divine mediator

        5. Moses is the prototype for all redemption

    4. Matthew’s Gospel has two primary motifs

      1. Moses

      2. Tabernacle

    5. One third of the book of Exodus is about the tabernacle

    6. Three important aspects

      1. God didn’t have a specific place to reveal himself until the


      2. The tabernacle clearly accomplishes a greater intimacy than

        what was occurring in the garden

        1. In the garden God is a voice, like a wind

        2. Here, God is much more visible

      3. The tabernacle now provides a fixed place for God’s presence

    7. Importance of obedience to divine command

    8. Chapters 25-31 has at least 7 speeches

    9. The Sabbath is a major motif in the tabernacle construction

    10. Shift from mountain to the tabernacle is important spatially and


      1. Leaves the typical dwelling place of the gods and lives with

        the people

      2. It is remarkable that a being such as God would choose to be

        present with Israel

      3. The NT uses this model for its own Christological theology

        1. Jesus was transfigured on the mountain, like Moses

        2. They both gave a law

        3. Both interceded and rescued their people

        4. John’s gospel is built around these two ideas

          1. Jesus is the divine logos

          2. The tabernacle is now present in the person of Jesus

      4. God entered into history in space, not merely time

        1. Is there such a thing as a holy place?

          1. Only because of God’s presence

          2. A site can be sanctified (set apart) but it is not


          3. If God is not present than places are not holy

        2. Because of Christ places are not holy, people are

          sanctified and holy because Christ is present in the

        3. Important concepts that come from a specific place

          1. Brings order to the worship of God

          2. Provides a tangible aspect for divine presence

          3. Provides stability in the midst of chaos

      5. Portability of the tabernacle

        1. It’s built in such a way that it can move easily

        2. The portability of the tabernacle is to get them to the

          land of promise

        3. It is not superior or inferior to the temple

        4. Any place is holy where the tabernacle rests

        5. Jerusalem is not an inherently holy spot

        6. Jerusalem is only holy because the tabernacle is there

    11. The problem is not that we can’t see God or that we can’t see

      miracles or that we are so sinful; the key is we need to
      enhance our relationship with God. This comes through loving
      God and loving others.

  1. The Fall and Restoration of Israel - 32:1-34:35

    1. Chapter 32:1-6

      1. Calves

        1. Aaron did not think that he is worshipping another God

        2. They are most normally associated with Baal

        3. They were creating an image of Yahweh

        4. Yet God made it clear that there is to be no concrete

          images made of him

        5. The Israelites were looking for a confirmation of a

          practice in the Ancient Near East

          1. When an army was moving they had the image of their

            god in the front

          2. The Israelites wanted this calf to serve that


      2. “Eat and drink, and rose up to play”

        1. Hints of Canaanite religious practices

        2. Basically an orgy

        3. Ironic echo of Exodus 24 when they first made the


        4. “Play” is from the Hebrew word for laughter (Isaac)

      3. There is no such thing as an act without a consequence

        1. Moses insisted that he was not qualified for the role

        2. This event now takes place as a consequence of Moses’

          objections to God

      4. There is one enemy that rivals God’s power: fear

        1. The Israelites are scared to death

        2. They are stuck in the wilderness with no idea of what to

          do or where to go

        3. They are pleading for a presence, they ask that the calf

          might “go before them”

        4. They manufacture a substitute for a real relationship

        5. Fear is the worst thief alive

        6. What is fear?

          1. It is rooted in self-preservation

          2. We think that we must remove ourselves from danger

            and threat

          3. Fear is usually involuntary but we must have a faith

            response to it

          4. Faith will not come when you are focusing on danger

            and insecurity

          5. We are afraid of all the wrong things, we should

            fear God (Matt. 10:28)

        7. What is the solution to fear?

          1. Knowledge helps some

          2. Anecdote for fear: 1 John – “perfect love casts out

            all fear”

          3. If we focus on love than we conquer fear

            1. We love God

            2. We love others

          4. It is impossible to not experience fear but it is

            critical that we do not make decisions out of fear
            but rather out of love

        8. We are in the wilderness for all of life – we were built

          for a garden but we won’t ever see it until after this

        9. You can’t have a closer relationship with one another

          than you have with God

    2. Chapter 32:7-10

      1. At least 15 verbs

      2. God is undoubtedly angry

        1. He calls Israel “your people”

        2. He is truly hurt by their bad decision

      3. Violated relationships is one of the most hurtful things

      4. Echoes Abrahamic covenant

    3. Chapter 32:11-14

      1. Moses avoids a power struggle with God and communicates 3

        good reasons he shouldn’t do this

        1. Appeal to reasonableness

        2. Appeal to Reputation

        3. Appeal to Promise

      2. This is not a model for open theism; God is modeling how to

        relate to him

      3. God is showing the human side of his being in order that

        human beings might know how to relate to him

    4. Chapter 32:15-18

      1. “cry, cry, singing” is all the same word

      2. May echo Genesis, the same word is used for “voice”

    5. Chapter 32:19-20

      1. The broken tablets

        1. Represent the broken covenant

        2. Moses was angry!

        3. God did not tell Moses to break them

      2. God did not threaten to break the covenant

      3. For all of God’s justice, he never said that he would break

        the covenant

      4. Relationships for God are not conditional

      5. Why would Moses make them drink the gold?

        1. Could be contrasted with the covenant meal they just had

        2. They are taking complete ownership of their guilt

        3. They ingest their violation, the guilt becomes part of


    6. Chapter 32:21-29

      1. Aaron is afraid to take ownership of what he has done

        1. Echoes Genesis 3, the loss of the garden

        2. He does not show himself to be the leader he was

          expected to be

        3. Every relationship we are in coexists with the reality

          that we are not truthful, that we are the image
          bearers that we should be, we are defensive

      2. Moses is speaking on behalf of the Lord

      3. The Levites are fully aware of the instigators in this


        1. Why didn’t Aaron die?

          1. He was the instigator

          2. He was just passive and responded to the pressure

          3. This doesn’t explain it

        2. Over 3,000 men die

        3. Clearly, these are those who caused this and God is

          executing judgment on them

    7. Chapter 32:30-35

      1. Not sure at all how many were smitten by God

      2. Not very many because the census that is taken a little

        later reveals about the same number

      3. Somewhat of a disturbing justice

        1. God ordering the destruction of men is quite disturbing

        2. Justice is done however

        3. We force God into our sense of justice

        4. We do not understand how God works all the time

        5. He is way more consistent in what he does than we are in

          what we do

    8. Chapter 33:1-6

      1. If we interpret this account in light of Genesis then this

        is part of their punishment, to leave

      2. In Genesis 3 they leave the garden, here they leave so that

        God can take them to the alternate place of the promise

      3. Three commonly held views for the identity of the angel (in

        Hebrew the word for “angel” is also that for “messenger”)

        1. Moses

        2. The angel of the Lord (malach Yahweh)

        3. An angel

        4. Whatever is happening with the angel, we can say for

          sure that it is a relationship that is not desirable

        5. Exodus 4#4:19 the “pillar of God” is called the angel of

          God so it could be talking about his visible presence

      4. Moses immediately confronts God

      5. “Sad word”

        1. Hebrew: ra

        2. Evil or calamity

      6. These are the same kinds of ornaments that they used to make

        the golden calf

      7. As a sign of their repentance they are asked to rid

        themselves of these ornaments

      8. The ornaments represent normalcy

        1. God is saying to them that they should have a period of


        2. They have done a bad thing and by stripping themselves

          of normalcy it reminds them daily of what they had

        3. Perhaps there is something spiritually healthy about

          revisiting our failures

        4. It reinforces our abilities to never go there again

    9. Chapter 33:7-11

      1. Switches to more of a model sort of language

      2. This is sort of a parenthesis describing how God would

        function with them

      3. God’s presence is clearly highlighted; especially in light

        of verses 1-6

      4. Without the ornaments of normalcy you are more aware of

        God’s presence and your relationship to him

      5. It is remarkable to see the focus on Moses

      6. Joshua is being mentioned because he is going to be the new


      7. There is a Christology here

        1. Clearly the gospels use this as a type of Jesus (and


        2. No one went into the presence of the Lord except Moses

        3. Christ becomes the tent of meeting

    10. Chapter 33:12-16

      1. In this passage 5 times favor has mentioned

      2. “Known you by name” is emphasized

      3. “Your people” is emphasized

      4. Moses recognizes the importance of God’s presence in the


      5. Ongoing repetition of the divine promise, “I will be with


      6. No matter whether we feel it or not; or conscious or not,

        God has made a life long promise, he is present

      7. When they are traveling in the wilderness that is a scary

        feeling. They want that comfort of seeing God’s visible
        presence. They are asking to see God moving out in front
        of us. This is the point of John 1. Like the Israelites we
        don’t physically see him which causes us much frustration.

    11. Chapter 33:17-23

      1. “Known you by name” is covenant language

        1. This can’t be a new covenant

        2. What promise is God making here?

          1. That Moses will permanently be the man whom God has

            appointed to lead the people

          2. God will work through Moses

      2. This affirmation elicits a surprising response

      3. It seems like Moses is asking for some kind of sign to

        confirm this

      4. Hasn’t Moses already seen God’s glory?

      5. Moses has clearly moved from

      6. What is looking for?

        1. Moses could just be asking for something more

          1. “Glory” actually means “heavy, numerous, rich”

          2. So if this is the case what is it that he hasn’t

            seen yet

          3. Moses hasn’t seen God’s face

          4. “Show me your face, show me your personhood”

        2. Moses could be asking for a confirmation of this new


          1. Give me another Theophany to confirm this

          2. Give me another manifestation of yourself to

            demonstrate this

        3. Clearly, no matter the specific exegesis, he is asking

          for a closer and deeper relationship

        4. Hebrew word “face” can also just mean presence

      7. Ultimately, it is in the incarnation that we see God

      8. Envelope: Burning bush to this revelation

      9. We tend to make more of this than we ought to

        1. The OT makes Moses’ relationship to God very unique and


        2. God can’t be seen; neither his back or face

        3. The Hebrew word probably means “residue”

        4. Whatever this is it is a Theophany because God doesn’t

          have a back to be seen

    12. Chapter 34:1-9

      1. The Theophany

        1. Moses is actually being shown God’s attributes

        2. In Exodus 3 the divine name had the emphasis of God’s


        3. Here there is an emphasis on the attributes of the

          divine name

        4. Emphasizes two major things

          1. God is a covenant God

          2. God is just

      2. Because of this Moses intercedes again asking that Yahweh go

        with them

      3. This model continues right into the NT

        1. Jesus is as faithful to perpetuating the covenant as


        2. Jesus is every bit as just as Yahweh

      4. This is a definitive moment in the OT

      5. God has approved the continuation of the covenant

      6. God has most clearly given a self-identification

      7. In the whole OT this is the most unique revelatory moment

        concerning Yahweh

      8. This is also a unique accreditation of the divinely chosen

        mediator, Moses

      9. It is God’s model to work through a divinely chosen and

        anointed mediator

      10. There is a remarkable tension between the God in the bush

        where Moses falls flat on the ground and the God who
        wishes to stand besides us (vs. 5)

    13. Chapter 34:10-35

      1. God seals the covenant by proclaiming that he will do

        miracles – typology for Christ

      2. Reminds them of several laws

      3. God is orchestrating a perpetual relationship

      4. Christology

        1. 40 days and 40 nights

        2. Moses was transfigured and his face shone

      5. Verses 29, 30, 35

        1. Moses’ face is said to have shone 3 times

        2. The veil is mentioned 3 times

        3. Moses spoke with God 3 times

        4. God spoke with the Israelites 3 times

        5. If you add that Yahweh spoke to Moses one time (earlier)

          we come up with 7

        6. There is no further speech in Exodus, this is the end of

          God speaking

      6. NT

        1. 2 Corinthians 3

        2. Paul is using the veil event typologically

        3. Hebrews also uses this commonly

        4. Only the NT itself can determine a type

        5. The NT normally only uses analogy

        6. The Gospels are the basis for the NT

        7. The biggest problem we have in reading the Gospels is

          that we read them as Christians

        8. We constantly miss the OT analogies and connections

      7. The covenant was made in Chapter 19-20

        1. What we have here is the reaffirmation

        2. The reason for the reaffirmation is that Israel violated

          the covenant

        3. The Lord’s Supper is at its core a covenant renewal


          1. We all need to cleanse ourselves and ask forgiveness

            of our sins as we enter into the Lord’s Supper

  1. God Fills the Tabernacle - 35:1-40:38

    1. Building of the tabernacle

    2. The means by which the tabernacle was built was by God’s Spirit

      filling men and women to make their contributions to
      construct the tabernacle

    3. The filling of the Spirit is almost always related to a task

      (not emotional)

    4. Echoes of Eden: There was more than enough materials and


    5. They have to be ordered to stop giving!

    6. The biblical model (even in the OT) is giving to meet the need

    7. Creation order is giving to meet the need

    8. “Thus Moses finished the work”

      1. The Israelites constructed the components

      2. But only Moses put them together

      3. Demonstrates the centrality of God’s anointed figure

    9. Conclusion

      1. The story ends with the tabernacle being filled with the

        glory of God

      2. “Through all their journeys” are the last words in Exodus

      3. This anticipates the book of Numbers, where all these

        journeys are recorded

  1. Analysis of typology

    1. There is clear comparison between Moses and Jesus in Matthew

    2. John’s Gospel

      1. The Prologue identifies Jesus as Yahweh

      2. In the creation Jesus precedes Moses

      3. The pericope climaxes in the middle, probably vs. 12

      4. Clear identification between Jesus and Moses

      5. Clarification of the divine name; logos

      6. In the person of Christ the glory is incarnate and we all

        can see what Moses asked for

      7. The greatest revelatory moment in the OT is poignantly

        paused with the reality that Moses cannot see God

      8. However, we can see the glory of God!

      9. Clear connection between Jesus and the tabernacle

      10. “Full of grace and truth”

        1. Exodus 34#34:6 again

        2. Same concepts

      11. This is the only time that grace appears in all of John’s


      12. Grace is really hesed, steadfast love

      13. Comparison with the notion that in the OT God revealed to

        Moses law (which is true) and in the NT we are now able to
        see hesed and grace, we can now see in the incarnate

      14. Jesus is the answer to Moses’ request

      15. The point is not that Moses was inferior or Christ was

        superior; the point is revelatory

      16. Relationship reaches a new level because God is incarnate

      17. Intimacy comes to a new level that has not been possible in

        the past

      18. The rest of the Gospel explains this

        1. Sevenfold use of “I am”

          1. The idea is established in the prologue

          2. Climax is in Chapter 18:5 – “I am”

          3. Peter’s denial is intensified when in his fear he

            says “I am not”

        2. Glory of God

          1. Clearly seen in Chapter 12:27-29

          2. Will be actualized in the physical death and


      19. Miracles (chiasm)

        1. Water to wine – wedding

          1. Resurrecting son

            1. Healing of the lame man

              1. Feeding of the 5000 *(Response is


            2. Healing of the blind man (Jesus as shepherd

              in 10)

          2. Raising of Lazarus

        2. Piercing of Jesus’ side with water and blood

        3. The book of John is enveloped around water and blood and

          the institution of the covenant in marriage

        4. The centerpiece is the feeding of the 5000 (John 6)

          1. The language is overtly out of Exodus

          2. Jesus himself makes the connection to manna

          3. They reject him

          4. Like the grumblings of Israel

      20. The revelatory features that were happening in Exodus are

        happening with Christ

      21. This is not about the church, it is about Israel

      22. John was trying to convince his Jewish audience that Jesus

        is the Messiah

The Whole Law as Ethical

The Unity of the Law and its Ethical Significance in the New Testament,
in the Church, and in Society

  1. Historical Redemptive Covenants

Abrahamic Covenant

Promise – Gen. 15, 12:1-3

Obligation – Gen. 17:1, 9-14

Mosaic Covenant

– Ex. 19:5b-6, Lev. 26:45

Obligation – Ex. 19:5a, 8, 24:3, 7


Promise – 2 Sam. 7:12-16

Obligation – 1 Kings 2#2:1-4

New Covenant

Promise – Jer. 31:31, Ezekiel 36#36:24-36

Matt. 5:1-16, 11:28-30 “rest,” Eph. 2:8-9

Obligation – Ezekiel 36#36:27b and Jeremiah 31#31:33b

Matt. 5:17ff, 11:28-30 “yoke,” Eph. 2:10

  1. Jeremiah 31#31:33b – “I will put my law in their minds and write it on

    their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people.”

Israel’s Place in the New Covenant



New Covenant

New Israel


Jews – Greeks – Women – Men – Slaves – Free – Rich – Poor

#Bible #Exodus

Copyright © 2023 Jesse Griffin. All original work licensed as CC BY-SA 4.0.