Exodus Notes

Notes and Outline on the Book of Exodus

Outline by Dr. Terence E. Fretheim

Professor Dr. Donald Fowler

Notes taken by Jesse A. Griffin


    • Authorship

        • Moses

        • The text claims that Moses is the author

        • The historical materials are clearly Mosaic as well

        • It may very well have been edited, but there is no possible way to know

    • Theme

        • The major theme is not the Exodus

        • The real title of the book is “These are the Names of”

            • This is steering in a theological direction bigger than just the Exodus

            • We are going to learn the theology of Exodus, not the history

            • The Exodus title came from the Septuagint

            • This title reminds us of God’s promises to Abraham

                • Progeny

                • Land

                • They would be a blessing to the nations

            • A main theme of Genesis is God keeping His promises to Abraham

            • Genesis closes with a reminder that the promise of land is still distant

            • This original title ties it back to Genesis and God’s promises

        • Major theme: God is present with Israel

        • Literary Envelopes

            • God’s presence

            • Revelation of the meaning of the divine name

            • Unique investment of God’s power in Moses

    • Genesis 17:1-8 comprises the whole OT story

        • The Abrahamic covenant is fulfilled:

            • The Mosaic covenant fulfills the land promise

            • The Davidic covenant fulfills the progeny promise

            • The New Covenant fulfills the blessing to the nations covenant

        • There must be a system that accepts discontinuity where there genuinely is differences, but we must highlight continuity between the covenants where it exists

        • The Old Covenant is with a specific nation, the New Covenant is not limited to a people, it is for all nations

        • There are aspects of the OC that reappear in the NC

        • All the covenants work together to create a complete picture, a plan that God is fulfilling

        • They are moving us toward a reunion, the redemption

    • Wherever there is promise, there is threat to the promise

        • End of Genesis – Joseph died and the 70 with him and they are in the wrong land!

        • Beginning of Exodus – Israelites fruitful and multiply

        • All throughout the OT this pattern is continued

    • God conquers all threats

    • We will be studying Pharaoh’s incarnational evil

    • When did the Exodus occur?

        • 1446

        • 1200

        • No Exodus

    1. Growth and Bondage in Egypt - Ch. 1-2

        1. Chapter 1:7 – brings us back to Genesis creation language

            1. Four of the verbs in this verse come from the Genesis account

            2. The original command to be fruitful and multiply is applied directly to the Israelites

            3. God is able to keep His promises

        2. Verse 8 – Pharaoh embodies all the chaos and evil because he has no name

            1. He is the incarnation of the threats to God’s promises

            2. He is the antithesis of God who does not have a specific name yet – eventually Yahweh

            3. It is hard to believe that there was a Pharaoh who did not know who Joseph was

                1. The Egyptians kept careful records of all rulers and leaders

                2. Odds are he did not forget

                3. yadah becomes a covenant word when it does not mean “to know” in the technical sense

                4. Thus, Pharaoh refused to honor the covenant that was made with Joseph and his descendents

                5. It is thought that this was one of the early 18th dynasty Pharaoh’s who expelled the Hyksos

                  1. hega koswe (Egyptian) – kings of foreign lands

                  2. They were of Amorite descent

                  3. They ruled in Northern Egypt

                  4. They were a powerful opponent of the Egyptians

                  5. Egyptians were of Mediterranean descent, short and sleek

                  6. The Hyksos were much larger, stronger, and had weapons of war – composite bow

                6. This Pharaoh that came to power was probably from the Egyptians and hated the Hyksos and the Israelites (i.e. the Semites)

                7. From Joseph’s death to now is about 3.5 - 4 centuries

        1. Verse 9 – Exaggeration

            1. At the most there were 2.5 million Israelites

            2. The Egyptians clearly outnumbered them

            3. Pharaoh needs an excuse to make a large workforce

            4. Fully 90% of Egyptian land was owned by temples

            5. Pharaoh sees this as an opportunity to establish a greater power by harnessing the Israelites

            6. Akhenaton (a Pharaoh to soon follow) clearly tried to reject the power of the Priests – he failed however

            7. Pharaoh recognizes that these people are a people, the Israelites before they recognize themselves as a people group

        1. Leitwort – leading word

            1. Characteristic of Hebrew narrative

            2. Major vehicles for communicating theological emphasis

            3. Cannot find in most English translations – NASB or ESV are the best for studying the Bible

            4. yadah – to know; this word almost always carries with it covenant connotations

        1. Verse 10

            1. Wisely/shrewdly – only used here in the whole OT – significant of the unique theologically situation

            2. Pharaoh’s attempt to be in control of God’s people results in the loss of the people

            3. noseph – join themselves; rhymes with Joseph

            4. Pharaoh’s shrewdness is the agency for prompting Israel to go up to the Promise Land

        1. Verse 11

            1. “hard labor” – same word Solomon uses to force the Israelites to serve the royal interests

            2. “Ramses”

                1. Was used much earlier than the 13th century

                2. The city was being built before the birth of Moses

                3. It is also a storage city not a capital city

                4. Not a reference to Ramses II

        1. Verse 12

            1. God’s will is being done in unobtrusive ways

            2. God is doing what He normally does – He uses human beings to accomplish His will

            3. Pharaoh is assuming the role of “decreator”

            4. God will soon become an interventionists

            5. rabah – “multiplied” – evidence that God is still fulfilling His promise to Abraham

            6. peats – “spread out”

                1. Birth episode in Genesis 38

                2. Micah 2:13 it is used of Christ – foreshadow of the one who will spread out for them, Christ

            7. Dread of Egyptians

                1. A logical response to their dread would be to send the Israelites out of the land

                2. This dread is from God

        1. Verses 13-14

            1. Sophisticated chiasm around the word “serve”

            2. “Serve” – ‘ebedleitwort – Chapter 2:11, 13, 17

                1. In forcing the Israelites to serve in this capacity Pharaoh is acting as the “decreator”

                2. Adam and Eve were created to serve the land

                3. Pharaoh is forcing the Israelites to serve him, not the land

                4. The ability to work is a gift from God

                5. By Pharaoh forcing them to work nonstop he is violating the creation order law of resting on the Sabbath

                6. This word has creational overtones

                7. Used over 70 times in Exodus

            3. “Mortar and bricks” – reminiscent of the Tower of Babel

        1. Verse 15-22 – passage is dripping with irony

            1. Echoes of Genesis 1–2

                1. The Creator God can assist Hebrew women in birth in order to foil the decreator’s plan

                2. “Be fruitful and multiply”

            2. Echoes of Genesis 6

                1. Throwing all babies into the Nile similar to the flood

                2. God sent the flood because of violence and polygamy

                3. God decreates in Genesis 6 based on justice

                4. Pharaoh assumes God’s role as decreator based on injustice

                5. God continues His plan through Hebrew midwives who fear Him and not Pharaoh

                  1. The midwives serve as a model for Israel and all people

                  2. One theme of the Bible is fearing the Lord

                  3. Central theme of Proverbs – fear the Creator God

                6. Contrast of males and females may go back to the “sons of God” having relations with the daughters of Eve

            1. It was a cultural plus to be able to outwit the one who was in power – i.e. God works through the Hebrew culture and uses midwives to “outshrewd” the alleged shrewd Pharaoh

        1. Theme of the first chapter

            1. Successful multiplying

            2. Last word – “to keep alive”

            3. Sets the foundation for the book: life will triumphant over death

        1. God’s work in Chapter 1 is thoroughly unobtrusive

        2. In chapter 2 God will begin raising up a counterpart to Pharaoh; Israel’s first king

        3. Chapter 2:1-3

            1. “beautiful” – tob

                1. Clearly echoes Genesis 1, 2

                2. Creation is good; very good

            2. There is always a threat, here it is Pharaoh

            3. “wicker basket” – tub

                1. Same word as “ark” in Genesis 6

                2. The mother is acting on behalf of God

                3. The floating ark preserves Noah and his family; the ark floating on the Nile preserves the Israelite family

                4. In Egyptian thought the Nile is a sacred deity

                5. This deity becomes the agency of saving Israel

        1. Verses 2:5-6

            1. Pharaoh is taking away life, but his own daughter is saving life

            2. In chapter 1 and 2 God uses women to accomplish His plan

            3. Moses’ mother follows Pharaoh’s command to put the child in the river

            4. Strong irony is found in the fact that God uses the underdog, those without power to accomplish his plan

            5. The ways of men are to accumulate power and use it; God, however, makes use of those without power

            6. We are so obsessed with success that God’s sovereign will is not always reflected in success as we think of it

        1. Verses 2:7-10

            1. Moses’ very name reflects God’s ultimate plan for Israel, to draw them out of the water

            2. Unwittingly, Pharaoh’s daughter is fulfilling God’s plan

            3. Moses’ mother even gets to nurse him for money!

            4. The shrewd Pharaoh is made to look like a fool because he is outdone by midwives and his own daughter and he raises the very one who will lead the Israelites out of slavery

            5. Water is symbolic of chaos; God is drawing his plan out of chaos

        1. Verse 2:11

            1. We know nothing about Moses’ biography; his growth, education, household experiences, etc. – foreshadow of Jesus’ story

            2. God chooses to be unobtrusive in how He uses Moses

            3. God will not become the interventionists until He has fully prepared Moses

            4. Sets the stage for Moses to be “God on earth;” not because he is God but because God who cannot be seen will do His work through Moses who can be seen

                1. Directly related to Pharaoh’s claim to be incarnate deity

                2. God is not incarnated; but He will work through His creation

                3. An anticipation, a type of Jesus

            5. “Goes out,” “sees”

                1. Verbs that are used of God also

                2. Anticipates Moses’ role as deliverer

            1. “One of his brethren” – Clear that Moses is on Israel’s side

            2. Lietwort – “Strike down” – same verb used in verse 12

        1. Theme: God accomplishes His will independent of direct divine intervention

            1. God’s will is effected very powerfully by ordinary means

            2. In Exodus, it is largely through women who fear the Lord

            3. God accomplishes as much through unobtrusive means as he does through obtrusive means

            4. God, the Creator, is always faced with decreators

            5. God will accomplish His greatest work in America through common everyday people, not politicians and not celebrities

        1. The divine choice of Moses is the beginning of the fulfillment of the promise to Abraham that kings will come forth from his seed

        2. Verse 2:12

            1. Moses “strikes down” the Egyptian

                1. Just like verse 11 the Egyptian strikes the Hebrew

                2. This verb is used repeatedly in Moses life; often when he is doing the Lord’s work

                3. This is the verb used when Moses strikes the rock (Numbers)

                4. Striking for God is good; but independent of God’s will results in Moses’ death

                5. Moses’ action here is at the core of the Mosaic Law; lex taliones

                6. This anticipates Moses in his capacity as lawgiver

        1. Verse 2:13

            1. “Striking”

                1. Word surfaces again

                2. Anticipates future and past controversies between tribes

            2. God raises up a deliverer and the first activity Moses must overcome after deliverance is keeping the people at peace

        1. Verse 2:14

            1. Typical that they do not understand that God has raised him up

            2. Moses probably didn’t understand that God had raised him up for this either

            3. They don’t understand God’s will because he is working unobtrusively

            4. God’s people consistently reject the prophets that God sends

            5. Similar to Jesus; Stephen’s speech

        1. Verse 2:15

            1. Moses’ experience is exactly the same as Israel will have

                1. Enter into conflict with the Egyptians

                2. Moses becomes the subject of a murderous edict from Pharaoh

                3. Moses will try to “flee” (same verb as 14:5) for his life

                4. Goes to Mt. Sinai

                5. Moses testifies to being a ger – sojourner

            2. In order to be God’s acknowledged leader Moses has to experience the same events as Israel in advance

            3. The same typology occurs in Christ’s life – Jesus relives the same events as Moses and Egypt experiences

            4. Ironically, Israel rejects Moses and Midian accepts him; Israel rejects Jesus and Gentiles accept Him

        1. Moses “sees, strikes, delivers”

            1. God does the same thing

            2. The verb “see” implies action in the context

            3. Same sequence in Judges

            4. God acting on behalf of Israel as Israel’s king

        1. The act of life-giving activity must occur in the context of justice

            1. Establishing justice is creational activity

            2. Characteristic of Hebrew prayer is for justice

            3. Characteristic of Christian prayer is for mercy

        1. Verse 2:15

            1. Moses sits by a well like Jacob

            2. He gets a wife like Jacob!

            3. Concept of the well is a legitimate typology

            4. The well gives water and therefore life

            5. The well gives social contact and therefore a wife

        1. Verse 2:16

            1. Priest of Midian has 7 daughters

                1. Implies great abundance

                2. God has supplied plenty on behalf of Moses

            2. Priest of Midian foreshadows Moses and his encounter with God

        1. Verse 2:17

            1. Moses becomes a deliverer once more

            2. Then proceeded to help water them

        1. Verse 2:18-19

            1. Moses apparently looked like an Egyptian

            2. He is not recognized as a Hebrew

            3. Probably wore dark eye makeup

            4. Moses drew the water from the well; just like his name means “drawn from water”

        1. Verse 2:20-21

            1. Hospitality is thought of in terms of justice

                1. Moses shows hospitality to Jethro’s daughters

                2. Jethro then shows hospitality to Moses

            2. Moses also receives a wife

        1. Verse 2:22

            1. Names the son “Gershom” – sojourner there

            2. The name anticipates the condition of Israel

        1. Verse 2:23

            1. Moses has to flee Egypt and receives a child

            2. Pharaoh stays in Egypt and dies

            3. No matter how spectacular the decreators are, they are still mere men who die

            4. Human fame is always contextualized by the reality that humans die

            5. Groaning

                1. Reminiscent of Cain and Abel

                2. Cycle of events in Judges

        1. God’s will is done at the well, not on the mountain

            1. Make the most of people encounters

            2. This is the primary way in which God moves

            3. There is no such thing as an insignificant conversation

            4. Study Jesus at the well

                1. He repeatedly asks questions that draw the woman out of herself and toward Him

                2. He nurtures the conversation to something important

                3. Jesus investigates the woman

        1. Verse 2:24-25

            1. God remembers in the sense that He chooses to be true to the covenant that He made

            2. God saw – implies action

            3. “Took notice”

                1. Lietwort – yada

                2. God knows Israel; He will act on their behalf

                3. He will act faithfully to His covenant

        1. The text is literature; that is where most of the theology is contained

    1. Moses and God: Call and Dialogue - 3:1-7:7

        1. Longest call narrative in the Bible - 3:1-6:1

            1. Moses objects 8 times to the Divine call

                1. This clearly shows God’s patience

                2. Patience that comes from the fact that a covenant has been established

                3. God will be true to His covenant, no matter what

            2. Includes all the elements of a typical call

                1. Theophany

                2. Introductory word

                3. Divine commission

                4. Moses’ objection

                5. God’s reassurance

                6. Sign

            1. Dialogue is not very common in narrative

            2. One of the longest dialogues between God and man

                1. Words are agencies that God uses to accomplish His will

                2. Communication is evidence of God

                3. The Trinity is based on communication

                4. Speech is one of the great messages of the Bible; the violation of speech is one of God’s most sensitive ethical issues

                5. This may be a paradigm of how God wants to relate to all of us

                6. God obviously enjoys dialogue

            1. Verse 3:1

                1. Moses is a shepherd – he doesn’t really have the choice to be anything else

                2. Mount Horeb

                  1. Horeb is Hebrew for “wasteland”

                  2. Not certain whether it was called the mountain of God before this event or because of this event

            1. Verse 3:2-5

                1. Moses is drawn to the bush by curiosity

                2. The name of the bush is a dead rhyme to mount Sinai

                  1. The bush becomes a foreshadow of God revealing Himself to Moses on mount Sinai

                  2. God does not let Moses comes near

                  3. “Close, but no closer” is a very important point

                3. “Moses, Moses,” similar to 1 Samuel 3

                4. No one in the OT was ever accorded the relational privileges that Moses had with God – Num. 12:6ff

                  1. Begins to set the stage for the incarnation

                  2. Moses is the incarnation of God’s will

                  3. Yet as close as Moses got to God, he could not see Him

                1. God speaks to Moses 13 times

                2. God stops him from coming closer; perhaps he could have contaminated the holy ground

            1. Verse 3:6

                1. God is the same God of Moses’ fathers, the God of the covenant

                2. Literary and theological envelope – God’s presence

                  1. Moses is aware that he is in God’s presence, he hides his face

                  2. In chapter 33 Moses asks “show me Your glory”

            1. Words of sight are used 9 times in this short passage

            2. Verse 3:7-8

                1. Same verbs in 2:24-25

                  1. I have seen, heard, know

                  2. These words mean that God is eternally true to His covenant

                2. God will come and deliver the Israelites

                3. God will fulfill His promise of the land

                4. “Land flowing with milk and honey”

                  1. Canaanite proverb

                  2. Should not be taken literally

                  3. It just means that it is good land

                1. God lists the nations He will defeat

                  1. List occurs several times

                  2. Last people group is always Jebusites

                  3. God anticipates that Jerusalem will be important

                  4. This city is not very important yet

                  5. Ultimately, God has in mind that Jerusalem will be the resting of the tabernacle

            1. Verse 3:9-11

                1. “Behold”

                  1. Should not really be translated as such

                  2. This Hebrew particle has two uses:

                  3. To introduce vividness

                  4. To introduce immediacy

                  5. At this very moment God is hearing Israel’s cry

                  6. Better translation, “At this very moment,”

                2. Irony between Moses’ first response, “here am I,” but now that he has heard Pharaoh it changes to “who am I?”

                  1. It is a measure of Moses that he is conscience of his limitations

                  2. Moses is not infatuated with his own gifts

                  3. He has a realistic evaluation of himself

                  4. The problem is his evaluation of God

                  5. Similar to Isaiah, “I am a man of unclean lips”

                  6. We have lost our sense of God’s greatness; we are more impressed with leadership strength rather than the distance between Moses and God

                1. God does not answer Moses with self-help therapy

                  1. God answers him with a more completely view of Himself

                  2. God is God and is able to use insignificant people

            1. Verse 3:12

                1. Theme: Presence of God

                  1. Hebrew verb – “I will be”

                  2. Significant that Jesus also said “I will be with you”

                  3. Envelope with God taking up residence in the tabernacle

                2. The sign does not help!

                  1. It is at the wrong end

                  2. The sign occurs after everything else occurs

                  3. Reminds us that this is a process

            1. Verse 3:13

                1. Moses needs a personal name

                  1. He already knows the name Yahweh

                  2. Moses is anticipating that God is going to establish a covenant

                  3. If he is going to the people then the people are going to ratify a covenant and they need a name to make the covenant with

                  4. Moses wants to know what is the name for the covenant

                2. Moses is still traumatized by the mention of Pharaoh

            1. Verse 3:14-15

                1. “I am who I am”

                  1. Wordplay between “I will be” and Yahweh

                  2. Could be “I will be who I am, I am who I will be”

                  3. Not sure of the exact translation

                  4. The idea is Divine presence

                2. Name is confirmation of the promise

                3. It is not the revelation of the divine name here, but it is the revelation of the meaning of the divine name

                4. The divine name envelopes the book – from here to the revealing of God’s name to Moses in Exodus 34

            1. Verse 3:16

                1. Through the elders Moses can contact and influence the whole people

                2. God has made an appearance

                  1. This is significant because God has been absent for 400 years

                  2. This will be actualized when God makes Himself visible to all Israel

                3. “I am concerned” – actually means “I have visited you”

                4. God is a relational being

            1. The Law is the evidence that there is a relationship and a blessing

            2. Verse 3:18

                1. “Will listen” – God is speaking about the ultimate reality, not the short term

                2. God says Moses is supposed to go with the elders

                3. The reality is that the elders never went

                4. Aaron probably replaced the elders

                5. “God of the Hebrews” – double entendre, refers to Acadian phrase that was known

                6. “3 days journey”

                  1. Semitic idiom which means “A long journey”

                  2. Probably not technical sense of 3

                  3. Like the story of Nineveh

                  4. Moses probably has in mind going to Mount Sinai

            1. Verse 3:19-20

                1. “Under compulsion”

                  1. I know he will not let you go except by a “mighty hand”

                  2. This “mighty hand” is the power of God in the hand of Moses

                2. It is the hand of Moses that effects the power of God

                3. The hand of Moses is exemplified specifically in his staff

                4. God knows exactly what it will take to bring Pharaoh to the point where he issues the decree “let the people go”

            1. Verse 3:21-22

                1. Interesting event that has been confirmed historically

                2. Reminder that God is intent at making the point that He is just

                3. The Egyptians have unjustly oppressed the Hebrews; they have taken their wealth and dignity

                4. The Hebrews will eventually take that plunder from God and turn it into their own god

                5. “Plunder” rhymes with “deliver”

            1. Verse 4:1

                1. There is a reasonability to Moses’ objection but it is dwarfed by the fact that he is in the very presence of Yahweh

                2. The Hebrews actual did question Moses

                3. However, God has the ability to empower Moses to do whatever He wishes

            1. Verse 4:2

                1. “What is this?” rhymes with “staff”

                2. God immediately fixates on Moses’ hand

                3. The divine purpose in asking questions is to allow for interaction and relationship; not that He doesn’t know

                4. The staff in Moses’ hand now becomes a motif for the rest of his life

                5. The staff is the power from God and it is his own failure that keeps him from entering the Promise Land

            1. Verse 4:3

                1. This snake is clearly poisonous because Moses flees

                2. If it were the Cobra it would virtually be able to outrun Moses

            1. Verse 4:4

                1. Grabbing snakes by the tail is not a good strategy

                2. No reason for Moses’ courage to pick up the snake

                3. Egyptians were infamous for their ability to do magic; is this just a magical sign?

                  1. The Egyptian cobra goddess was a symbol of Pharaoh’s power

                  2. There is no more powerful symbol of Pharaoh’s power than the cobra goddess Buto

                  3. This is a clear polemic against Pharaoh

                4. Pharaoh has a shepherds crook which is a symbol for king

                5. Moses is becoming God’s king

                6. Pharaoh also has a flail

                  1. Once described as a whip

                  2. It is now believed to be the instrument used by early goat herders

                1. Both these instruments take us back to the earliest instruments of kingship – a shepherd

                2. Moses will be God’s king, even king of Egypt’s king

                3. Moses is now Israel’s divinely appointed king

            1. Verse4: 6-7

                1. In case Moses did not understand the first sign

                2. Moses’ hand is being uniquely isolated as the means by which God will do His mighty work

                3. The hand can become clean as well as unclean

                  1. The hand is so powerful as to overpower Pharaoh

                  2. The hand also becomes the downfall of Moses

                  3. Will the power in Moses’ hand stay good, or become unclean?

                4. God is uniquely commissioning Moses as His king

                5. Leadership in this capacity must be accompanied by obedience to God

                6. Any king of Israel is only king so long as he is willing to obey God – an evil king will never go unpunished

                7. Anticipates king Uzziah – 2 Chronicles; he sought to burn incense before God and he was struck with leprosy

            1. Verse 4:8-9

                1. Things appear in threes

                2. Not good evidence for open theism

                3. Nile turns to blood

                  1. Obvious polemic against the lifeblood of Egypt, the Nile

                  2. Against the god of the Nile, Nun

                  3. 1 – Nun was at the heart of the ancient pantheon

                  4. 2 – the Nile was at the heart of their agriculture system

                  5. 3 – Water is the most vital means of effecting spiritual cleansing – In the Egyptian religion water was at the heart of salvation

                4. These signs convince the Israelites but not Pharaoh

                5. It is Moses’ hand that reaches into the Nile and pours it out

                6. Envelope: unique investment of God’s power in Moses

                  1. This is how God relates to Israel in the OT

                  2. If God’s appointed leader is faithful then they are blessed

                  3. If God’s appointed leader is faithless then they are punished

                  4. Moses was clearly a king

            1. Verse 4:10

                1. Num. 12:3 – Moses was more humble than anyone else

                  1. The biblical word “humble” does not mean what it does in English

                  2. What the Hebrew word really means is “pious”

                  3. Thus, Moses is the man who understands his relationship with God better than anyone else

                  4. God is king, Moses is His slave

                2. Egyptian – hom is the word for priest and servant

                3. Two categories of priests in Egyptian religion

                  1. Kher-hebet – “servant of the god,” priest who was responsible to speak

                  2. Sem – silent, he carried and presented offerings

                1. Perhaps Moses has in his mind that Aaron could be the lector priest and he could be the servant in the background

                2. His protest, essentially, is a lack of faith

                3. Acts 7:22

            1. Verse 4:11-12

                1. Isaiah 45:5-7; Psalm 139:1-6

                  1. God causes calamity

                  2. We do not know if He sovereignly causes all calamity

                  3. The proper response in any situation is putting one’s faith in God

                2. Thus, God’s response is that “I have made you”

                3. Each person is uniquely shaped by God

                4. Short command, “Go”

                  1. Moses’ protest is wordy

                  2. God’s command is plain and simple

                1. God also gives a promise

                  1. God promises His presence

                  2. He also promises that to teach Moses what to say

                1. Large emphasis on mouth in this short passage

                  1. Egyptian religion had a ceremony called The Opening of the Mouth

                  2. If the Egyptians could make a statue alive than how much more can the God of Heaven make Moses speak

            1. Verse 4:13

                1. Moses’ remark is deferential

                2. He is not saying clearly “don’t send me” but he is resisting and asking that God would send another

            1. Verse 4:14-17

                1. God is angry

                2. God agrees to the commissioning of Aaron

                3. God creates distinctions

                  1. God speaks to Moses, Moses to Aaron

                  2. Only Moses can take the staff in his hand

                  3. Aaron and Miriam both fall into the leadership trap and try to elevate themselves

                4. God’s sovereignty works with us, not just above us

                  1. There is a real relationship between God and man

                  2. God does not turn us into robots

                  3. God is not content to just impose His sovereign will

                  4. The mystery is that God uses bad choices on our part to further the relationship

                  5. Similar to Christ’s fellowship with Judas knowing that he will betray Him

                  6. Further, Christ chose His three closest friends to go with Him to the garden of Gethsemane knowing that they would fail Him in His hour of greatest need

                1. Aaron’s name means “joined together;” it anticipates Moses and Aaron becoming a team

            1. Verse 4:18

                1. Patriarchal society

                2. Moses needed Jethro’s permission

            1. Verse 4:19-23

                1. Anticipates much of the rest of the story

                2. Pharaoh’s heart hardened

                  1. Three different words for “hardened”

                  2. Several different references made to this topic

                  3. Yahweh hardens Pharaoh’s heart; Pharaoh hardens his heart; some texts do not mention the agent

                  4. There is a mutual hardening of Pharaoh

                  5. It is Pharaoh

                  6. It is God

                  7. Priority (who hardened first) is not the point

                  8. Egyptian theology does not allow Pharaoh to repent – he thinks he is god

                  9. One of the ways God makes Himself known is displaying His sovereignty

                  10. Any Pharaoh would have reacted in this same way

                  11. Romans 9 – God is free to do what He wants

                  12. Pharaoh’s hardening is only in relation to him not letting the people go

                  13. This whole circumstance creates the opportunity for God to display His power

                  14. The salvation message in this book is that nothing can stop God from fulfilling the divine plan to redeem Israel

                3. Prediction of the death of the firstborn

            1. Verse 4:24-26

                1. Perhaps the most difficult passage in this book to make sense of

                2. Who is he?

                  1. Could be Moses; which would be bizarre

                  2. Cold be Gershom; Moses’ firstborn son

                3. Zipporah intervenes once again and continues the theme of female heroines throughout the book

                  1. “Foot” – actually means genitals

                  2. “Threw” – actually says she “touched”

                  3. Thus, she touched her son’s foreskin at Moses’ genitals

                  4. This act apparently was how she saved Moses

                  5. It is thought that this is a foreshadow of the Passover where the blood on the door posts saves the firstborn

                  6. The blood of the first born expiated the sin of someone – either that Moses wasn’t circumcised or his son wasn’t, or both

                1. The angel of the Lord was merely “seeking” his death, not necessarily decreed his death

                2. There is a clear connection between this passage and vs. 23

                3. For more information on this topic see Word Biblical Commentary by John Duram

            1. Verse 4:27

                1. met - same verb as in vs. 24

                2. Not sure why the text mentions the kiss though it was customary

            1. Verse 4:29-31

                1. Aaron speaks

                2. “He” performed the signs

                  1. Not sure who this is

                  2. Most likely Moses

                3. The text moves a lot faster than what happened in real life counting the journeying and the gathering of the elders

                4. The people believe

                5. The people “bowed low and worshiped”

                  1. They are not entirely sure Who they are worshipping

                  2. Their belief fulfills God’s statement to Moses

                  3. Statement appears again in 12:27

                  4. They do this again at Passover

            1. Verse 5:1

                1. Open ended

                2. Moses is not saying that we are all leaving

                3. Not certain how they got an audience with Pharaoh

            1. Verse 5:2

                1. Who is Yahweh?

                  1. That answer follows in the rest of the text

                  2. Specifically chapter 6

                2. I do not know Yahweh

                  1. Reminiscent of the previous Pharaoh’s statement, “I do not know Joseph”

                  2. It is a covenant word that means he refuses to accept what Yahweh has to say

                1. Besides all this, he will not let the people go

            1. Verse 5:3-9

                1. Pharaoh does not care what God does to Israel

                2. “Labor” appears 7 times – also the word for “serve”

                3. Who will they serve? Creator God, or decreator god?

                4. All of the earth’s tyrants respond to threats with greater harshness

                5. Joshua 24 – “choose you this day who you will serve

            1. Verse 5:10-14

                1. “Thus says Pharaoh”

                  1. Messenger formula

                  2. Antithesis to 5:1

                2. Nothing grows outside of .5 a mile of the Nile

            1. Verse 5:15-20

                1. Characteristic of decreators is to use the enslaved to abuse the enslaved

                2. The human heart in all its evilness is exposed here in the lives of the Hebrew foreman

            1. Verse 5:21-23

                1. Everyone blames the Lord

                2. If you are in a position of leadership, this experience is going to happen you

                  1. People see doubt as an opportunity for unbelief rather than a chance to grow closer to God

                  2. The people you are leading will complain

                3. Why would Yahweh move things along so low?

                  1. To develop Moses’ character

                  2. Reveals God’s character; His patience

                  3. Relationship, covenant relationship

                  4. God is faithful

                  5. The higher the form of communication the more intimacy

                  6. Disappointments are opportunities to make healthy changes

                  7. God gives Israel the opportunity to bond with Him in a true relationship

                  8. Forces Israel (and Moses) to learn dependency

            1. Verse 6:1

                1. Lietwort is “compulsion” – mighty hand

                2. Pharaoh will only act under compulsion

      1. Restatement - 6:2-7:7

          1. Verse 6:2-8

              1. Envelope (or chiasm) – “I am Yahweh”

              2. JEDP system

                  1. OT is a patchwork of various editors

                  2. J – Yahwist – 10-9th

                  3. E – Elohist – 9-8

                  4. D – Deuteronomist – 7-6

                  5. P – Priestly – Exile

                  6. This system was started in 1600’s

                  7. This system cannot be made to work “neatly”

                  8. Almost no one agrees with how this works across the whole OT

                  9. They “know” it works, but no one can agree on how

              3. C.S. Lewis refers to modern scholars as “Chronological snobs”

                  1. They have a sense of superiority at the expense of the ancients

                  2. Thus, Scribes who are nearly inerrant and incredibly meticulous are made to look like fools if this JEDP system is true

              1. The notion that Israel at one time did not know the divine name is false

              2. God appearing seems to be related to El Shaddai

                  1. This passage is the 7th mention of God’s appearance as El Shaddai

                  2. God seems to have appeared to the Patriarchs as el

                  3. This is probably because Abraham associated this name with God

                  4. Shaddai is most likely an epithet

                  5. God is addressing one of His promises to Abraham, that his descendents will be numerous

              1. Now God is changing his name in order to address another part of the Abrahamic promise

                  1. Yahweh is the name that God is going to use to fulfill another part of the covenant

                  2. Verb root is “to be”

                  3. This name has the new significance of one of the themes; presence of God with Israel

                  4. [Insert chart from OT book]

              1. Thus, El Shaddai revolves around descendents; Yahweh revolves around land

              2. In Exodus 3 God revealed to Moses the contextual meaning of the divine name Yahweh, “I will be with you”

              3. In this passage God is saying “Because I am with you I will fulfill my covenant to give you the land”

              4. “I did not make Myself known…” (vs. 3)

                  1. Does not mean “know about”

                  2. Means that God is now making His covenant with Israel concerning land (vs. 4)

              1. The gospel message in the OT: “Bring out,” “deliver,” “redeem”

              2. This Exodus story has frequent allusions to Genesis 6

                  1. Here the land is filled with violence upon Israel

                  2. Here, just like the ark, God brings out, delivers, and redeems Israel

                  3. Instead of just saving the elect family, it moves to the elect nation

              1. Formula, “I am Yahweh” means divine presence

              2. John uses this as a revelatory formula all the way through his gospel

          1. Verse 6:9-13

              1. This is an excuse – “An excuse is just a lie stuck in the skin of reason”

              2. Anytime our eyes are on ourselves, rather than God, we subject ourselves to failure

          1. Verse 6:14-27

              1. Genealogy

              2. The purpose is to show the leaders of Israel

              3. Explain who helped to lead Israel out of Egypt

          1. Verse 6:28-30

              1. Even ineffective communication is better than no communication

              2. Moses uses a substitute excuse, he is clearly afraid

              3. The real issue is “I’m afraid and I’m not convinced we are going to pull this off”

          1. Verse 7:1

              1. Moses will be God, and Aaron his prophet

              2. This anticipates the incarnation of Christ

              3. Jesus is the one who will truly be God in the flesh and will bring out, deliver, and redeem His people

              4. Correct understanding of this book is essential for the proper interpretation of the gospel of John

          1. It doesn’t matter how relationships start out, it matters how they end up

              1. It’s not how bad things go, its how you continue on

              2. Relationships should not be based on good times only

              3. God does not hold Moses’ objections and hurtful actions toward Him against Moses

          1. Verse 7:3

              1. God didn’t have to harden Pharaoh’s heart

              2. It is clear that Pharaoh was not going to let the people go

              3. Lietwort – “Signs and wonders”

                  1. Code words throughout Exodus

                  2. Also appear in Acts 1-15

                  3. Formula that is referring to the miracles that God will do to demonstrate to the whole world that He is the real God, even though He can’t be seen

          1. Verse 7:7

              1. The ages remind us that God is the giver of life

              2. Pharaoh’s didn’t live to be 80

    1. The Plagues - 7:8-11:10

        1. Verse 7:9-10

            1. Hebrew: tanin – translated “serpent” unusual Hebrew word (only appears 12 times)

                1. Often suggests cosmic type of serpent

                2. This is certainly not a normal kind of snake

            2. The imagery here is different than the first time

                1. This serpent is mythical

                2. Not exactly sure, but it is extra-normal

                3. It is also able to eat all the snakes of Pharaoh’s magicians

        1. Verse 7:11-13

            1. It could very well have been demonic arts

            2. Pharaoh’s magicians really did perform miracles – Satan has the ability to perform miracles

            3. Very important to note that God’s miracles are better and overpower Satan’s

            4. Pharaoh of course was hardened

        1. Verse 7:14

            1. God takes time to tell Moses what Pharaoh is thinking

            2. God is orchestrating the events through Moses

        1. Verse 7:15-25

            1. Emphasis on staff of Moses and Aaron

                1. Both are divinely accredited

                2. Both are the agency for turning the Nile to blood

            2. The Nile

                1. Egypt gets maybe 2” of rain each year

                2. The Nile is its life-source

                3. It is the means by which they get drinking water and farming water

            1. We cannot make sense of why we have the plagues in the order that we have them – It is significant, however, that the first plague strikes the Nile

            2. God strikes more than just the Nile

                1. The Egyptians built reservoirs

                2. These reservoirs filled up when the Nile flooded every year

                3. God turns every supply of water to blood

                4. This plague is a polemic against Egyptian physical and theological life

                5. Against the Nile deities

                  1. Khnum – guardian of the Nile

                  2. Hapi – spirit of the Nile (chief deity)

                  3. Both male and female characteristics

                  4. The Nile represented fertility

                  5. When the Nile is turned to blood God is attacking the action of Hapi

                  6. Osiris – Nile was bloodstream

            1. The text continues to show a sophisticated knowledge of Egyptian theology

                1. Digging in the ground for water

                2. This sign has not undone the primeval deity Nun

                3. Nun stretched under the earth and was found as water in the earth

            1. Envelope: the first and the last plagues are marked by blood

            2. Envelope: the first and the last plagues have to do with water

            3. Echoes of Pharaoh’s edict to throw Hebrew sons into the Nile The Nile is essential in the functioning of their religion

                1. Ritual cleansing through the water of the Nile was essential to rebirth

                2. Rebirth is no longer possible in their religion when the Nile is polluted

            1. Pharaoh was unconcerned

            2. Seven days, loaded number

        1. Hebrew: nagaph (technical word)

            1. Verb form occurs 45 times – 18 of which are God delivering a blow to Egypt

            2. 33 derived forms – 30 of which are God delivering a blow to Egypt

            3. Yahweh is doing more than just delivering a plague, He is judging

        1. Three words that dominate the plague accounts

            1. Serve

            2. All – over 50 times in these plague accounts

            3. Land – over 50 times in these plague accounts

            4. “All the land”

                1. Echoes Genesis

                2. “Fill all the land…”

                3. “All the land filled with violence…”

                4. Both the people and the land suffer the same fate

        1. Verse 8:1-2

            1. Egyptian deity

                1. Heqt – form of frog

                2. God of resurrection

                3. Resurrection was through the Nile

                4. Associated with fertility

                5. Associated specifically with birth

                6. Female deity

                7. Servant of Heqt – means midwives

            2. Not a pleasant happening

            3. Possibly this plague was chosen because of the theological claims of this deity

                1. Enhances the qualities of God as life-giver

                2. Highlights God’s ability to multiply His people in the midst of Pharaoh’s attempt to kill them

                3. The land is now teeming with frogs

                4. Counterclaim by God that He is the one who grants fertility

        1. Verse 8:3-8

            1. Once again, if the magicians actually mimic the miracle, they only make it worse! They could be considered to be serving God indirectly

            2. “Entreat”

                1. Not the word “pray”

                2. More similar to “ask” or “make a request”

                3. Pharaoh has not assumed any religiosity

        1. The reason for the first two plagues are likely theological

        2. The next four plagues are designed to make life miserable for the Egyptians and Pharaoh

        3. The last four involve loss of human life

        4. Verse 8:9-11

            1. When would you like to be frogless?

            2. Tomorrow

            3. Shows the sovereignty of God in being able to do whatever He wants whenever He wants

        1. Verse 8:12-15

            1. “Cry out”

                1. Used in chapter 2 when the Israelites cried out to the Lord

                2. Not normally a prayer word

                3. A subtle way in which Moses is interceding on behalf of Israel

            2. The death of the frogs would have caused disgusting smells and clean up

            3. Pharaoh still refuses to let them go

                1. He hardened his own heart

                2. Yahweh and Pharaoh work together to hardened his heart

        1. Verse 8:16-19

            1. Not sure what they were

                1. Could be gnats

                2. Could be mosquitoes, maggots

                3. Could just be translated swarms

            2. Magicians are not capable of replicating

                1. Each time the magicians loose power

                2. “This is the finger of God”

                  1. Deut. 9:10 – ten commandments written by God’s finger

                  2. Luke 11:20 – Jesus casting out demons by the finger of God

                  3. Could be a reference to Aaron’s staff

                  4. It is not sure that they are referring to Yahweh God

        1. The primary theological theme that is going on is that Yahweh is present

        2. By the 18th dynasty 90% of the land was owned by temples

            1. Pharaoh was the most powerful single man but their religious temples and priests held the majority of the power as a group

            2. It could be that Pharaoh hardens his heart because he has no choice

            3. Pharaoh may not have all the power necessary to let the Hebrews go

            4. Thus, when the priests/magicians report that “this is the finger of God” they may be reporting the status of what they think

        1. Verse 8:20-21

            1. Not sure why Pharaoh went down to the water

                1. Wasn’t for cleaning because its dangerous

                2. Could have been something religious

            2. Language similar to the frog plague, only insects

            3. Purpose is obviously just to make life miserable

        1. Verse 8:22-24

            1. Purpose is to show that God is in their midst

            2. Israel set apart

            3. “Division between My people…”

                1. Hebrew root: padah

                  1. Means redemption

                  2. NASB – set apart

                  3. There is no semantic domain for “distinction,” or “division”

                2. The word padad has the division idea

            4. Hebrew: sahat

                1. “Laid waste”

                2. Echoes Genesis 6 – land laid waste via the flood

                3. This word reappears three times in chapter 12

                4. Echoes God’s determination to be true to the covenant He has made with Israel

        1. Verse 8:25-26

            1. Not sure, but it seems like Pharaoh is avoiding the name Yahweh

            2. This is a movement in the right direction

            3. “Abomination”

                1. Gen. 43:32, 46:34

                2. Moses is echoing the words of Joseph’s story when the Egyptians would not eat with the Semites or shepherds

                3. To the Egyptians, Semites are an abomination

                4. To the Egyptians, animal sacrifice is an abomination

        1. Throughout the plagues Aaron has a discernable decline in the role he plays

        2. Verse 8:27-32

            1. None left – shows the power of God

            2. Jeremiah 38

                1. Zedekiah king of Judah, so he arrests Jeremiah and tortures him and then releases him

                2. Then Zedekiah asks Jeremiah to come talk to him by night

                3. Zedekiah feels like he can’t surrender to the king of Babylon because he thinks the people around him will assassinate him

                4. To some degree we wonder if Pharaoh was encountering the same problems

        1. Verse 9:1-3

            1. For the first time these people are referred to as Hebrews

            2. Catastrophic consequences if Pharaoh refuses

            3. Over 200 times the phrase “hand of the Lord” is used and followed by judgment

        1. Verse 9:4-7

            1. Nothing will happen to Israel

            2. Tomorrow – repeat from when Pharaoh said remove the plague tomorrow

            3. Loss of livestock means loss of work, food, status

            4. Hebrew: shalach “Send”

                1. Pharaoh sends messengers to check on Israel

                2. But he will not send Israel away

        1. Verse 9:8-12

            1. Last time Aaron plays an active role

            2. The boils that God sends on the Egyptians are the same boils that God threatens to give to Israel in Deuteronomy

            3. Also the boils in Job’s experience

            4. “Could not stand” – may be literal

            5. The previous plague may have killed all the animals that were penned up, and this one may affect those in the fields

        1. Verse 9:13-17

            1. Hebrew napah

                1. Blows or strike

                2. This is the only time in the OT where this word is used in the plural

                3. Used for the judgment of God

            2. God wants His name to be known

                1. As present

                2. As Creator God

                3. Both for Egypt and Israel

        1. The whole story shows God’s grace

            1. He is true to His covenant

            2. These plagues show God’s grace and compassion on Israel’s part

            3. Shows the triumphant of God’s grace

            4. There is a sense in which we are all Egyptians – or worse than them because we are not ignorant

        1. Verse 9:18-26

            1. Egypt rarely if ever gets hail

            2. Moses’ staff is used to effect God’s will

            3. Echoes of

                1. Flood

                2. Language of Theophany

                3. Another artful way to show that God is present

                4. These words reappear (except the hail) in chapter 19

                5. Sodom and Gomorrah

            4. “Every plant,” “every tree”

                1. All never means all

                2. For emphasis

                3. Wholesale destruction

            1. Land of Goshen is protected once again

        1. Verse 9:27-30

            1. What is Pharaoh saying?

                1. Is he truly repenting of a sin?

                2. Main Hebrew word for sin means “to miss the mark”

                  1. Not necessarily moral

                  2. Pharaoh was saying that he made a mistake, made a bad judgment

                3. Not claiming that Yahweh is righteous but rather just that He was right in this situation

                4. Foxhole repenter!

            2. Creational language

        1. Verse 9:31-35

            1. Side note describing what was ruined

            2. There was still vegetation left for the locusts

            3. Pharaoh hardens his heart again

            4. Similar to the Canaanites who do not relent

        1. Verse 10:1-6

            1. Obviously the hail did not destroy everything

            2. God is the Creator of all land and all people

            3. The locusts will destroy anything that was left

        1. Verse 10:7-11

            1. Pharaoh’s servants

                1. Interesting that the servants of Pharaoh are reasonable

                2. They suggest that the men go

                3. Don’t you know that Egypt is destroyed

                  1. Ironic word

                  2. Alludes to Pharaoh’s statement, “I do not know Yahweh”

            2. Pharaoh does not understand what Yahweh has done

            3. “The Lord will certainly need to be with you if you take your little ones along” - NLT

                1. Pharaoh is making a wordplay on Yahweh

                2. He understands that Yahweh means God’s presence

                3. Pharaoh has made a mockery of Yahweh

        1. Verse 10:12-15

            1. Locusts

                1. Life threatening

                2. Completely destroy the land

                3. They are used primarily for divine judgment in the Old Testament

                4. Used for divine judgment in the great Day of the Lord

                5. Revelation

                  1. Iron jaws – metaphorical

                  2. Most of John’s Day of the Lord language is taken from the Old Testament prophets

            2. Devastating event

            3. In any normal country this would destroy the population

                1. Because of Egypt’s climate it can replant everything in a couple months and at least survive

                2. The temple complex’s had vast storage bins

            1. Egyptian theology

                1. Isis, the god of life

                2. Seth, protector the crops

                3. Reminder that Yahweh is present

                4. If Pharaoh is truly a god he should be able to provide life for his people

        1. Verse 10:15-20

            1. Refers to the plague as a death

            2. It really just prefigures the final plague which is truly death

            3. yom suph

                1. Literally “Sea of Reeds”

                2. Not actually the Red Sea

                3. The locusts were sent into just like Pharaoh’s army will be sent into the Sea of Reeds

                4. Not completely sure where the Sea of Reeds is

        1. Verse 10:21-23

            1. Egyptian theology

                1. Osiris, giver of life – Pharaoh’s deity

                2. The sun shone virtually everyday

            2. Darkness

                1. Thick darkness

                2. Could be felt

                3. Goshen is not affected

                4. Moses asks for a three-day journey into the wilderness

            1. Amos 5

                1. First of the prophets to mention darkness in the Day of the Lord

                2. Egypt’s darkness foreshadows the Day of the Lord

            1. This anticipates the last of the plagues

                1. The death of the first born occurs in the night

                2. This plague makes death itself tangible

            1. Echoes creation – return to the chaotic darkness before light

        1. Verse 10:24-29

            1. Pharaoh’s hard heart once again

            2. Envelope: “see my face”

                1. Moses says Pharaoh will never see his face again because he will die

                2. Yahweh tells Moses that he cannot see His face and live

                3. Irony

                  1. Pharaoh, who claims to be god and can be seen, will no longer be seen

                  2. Yahweh, who cannot be seen, will reveal to Moses what can be seen

            3. The Israelites don’t believe any more than the Egyptians

        1. Verse 11:1-10

            1. Hebrew: naga

                1. Means “to touch”

                2. In this case it means to touch negatively

                3. Connects this plague with the Israelites who are supposed to “touch” the blood to the doorpost

            2. Mentions the two social extremes, from Pharaoh to slave

            3. Hebrew: tsach

                1. Means “cry” or “outcry”

                2. Root that appeared all the way through chapters 1-2 when the Israelites were crying out

        1. The narrative is now interrupted

            1. The style changes to liturgy

            2. Takes a whole chapter to explain the founding of Passover

            3. There seems to be a sequence in which liturgy encloses the stories and liturgy encloses the entire sequence

            4. Very well may be that liturgy was regarded as some sort of exalted language

            5. This technique has the ability of heightening the tension

    1. From Passover to Praise - 12:1-15:21

        1. Verse 12:1-14

            1. Ezekiel 45:18-20

                1. The only other place in the Bible where blood is placed on the door

                2. Blood smeared on the doorway of the temple

            2. Hebrew: pesach

                1. Passover

                2. One of the more important theological words

                3. Not mentioned very much in the OT

                4. Hezekiah, Josiah

                5. One of the three great holy days of the year

            1. Pesachim

                1. This is a document in the Mishna

                2. Devoted to explaining how Passover was done

                3. Dates around 300 A.D.

                4. Not exactly sure how accurate it is in explaining the OT observance of it

                5. Good reason to think that it is largely reliable

            1. Passover (a.k.a. Feast of Unleavened Bread)

                1. All the people would gather in the outer temple

                2. They would gather together in companies, family oriented

                3. The priests would stand in two rows

                  1. In one row each priest had a silver basin which caught the blood

                  2. In the other row each priest had a gold basin which caught the blood

                4. After the blood was collected it was passed from hand to hand all the way to the end of the line

                5. At the end of the line the last priest took hyssop and dipped it in the blood and sprinkled it in ritual manner on the alter

                6. All the while everyone was singing the Hallel (Psalm 113-118)

                7. Hebrews 11:28 alludes to some of this

                8. Hyssop

                  1. Mentioned only a few other times in the Bible

                  2. Numbers 19:1-10, Psalm 51:7

                1. Jesus is clearly identified as the Passover Lamb in Christian theology

                2. It is some what confusing in trying to merge Deuteronomy 16 and this passage

                  1. Should be viewed in similar manner as the Synoptic problem

                  2. There are clear differences, but they are not extreme

                1. Feast of Unleavened Bread

                  1. Causes problems because the Israelites were supposed to eat hurriedly and be ready to leave for the Passover

                  2. Many commentators argue that Moses picked up this tradition and merge it with the Passover event

                  3. It is surprising to have a 7 day feast climaxed by an urgent meal, but that is the clearest reading

                  4. Perhaps 7 is just a number that evokes the creation week that describes a new act that God will do

        1. Verse 12:21-28

            1. Hebrew: ebed

                1. Means “serve”

                2. Brings up the struggle between Yahweh and Pharaoh in who Israel will serve

                3. “observe this servitude forever”

            2. Lex taliones

                1. The punishment must fit the crime

                2. The smiting of the firstborn is justice for the massacre of the Hebrew babies earlier

                3. The point of the first 6 chapters is establishing the ethic of why God will send the plagues on the Egyptians

                4. Because God is present, justice is done

                5. Exodus 34:6-7

                6. Christians identify with God through His mercy

                7. Jews identifies with God through His justice

                  1. Both traditions are biblical

                  2. Both need to be combined to get an accurate view of who God is

                  3. New Testament justice occurs primarily in the end times (“in that day”)

                8. Unfortunately, we read about Israel’s suffering as if it didn’t matter because we know the end of the story

        1. Verse 12:29-32

            1. Hebrew: ebed

                1. Really “serve”

                2. Pharaoh consents to their serving God

            2. Pharaoh is not as urgent and adamant that they leave as he was that they stay earlier on

            3. “Take everything with you”

            4. “Bless me also”

                1. Pharaoh is the quintessential decreator

                2. He cares about no one but himself

            1. Clearest modern example is Soddam Husain

        1. Verse 12:33-36

            1. Lex taliones

                1. The Egyptians had plundered the Israelites for centuries

                2. Now the Israelites have the chance to plunder Egypt

            2. Getting out of Egypt isn’t really changing anything spiritually

        1. The Exodus is not the climatic event, but only the beginning of a journey to deal personally and relationally with Yahweh

        2. Verse 12:37-41

            1. Not sure where Succoth was at

            2. House of Rameses

            3. 600,000 men

                1. This means that there are over 2 million people

                2. On top of this there is cattle and other livestock

                3. This is a difficult number to understand

                4. There have not been any legitimate attempts to discount this number, however

                5. Hebrew: bene yisrael

                  1. Children of Israel

                  2. The consonantal number is 603, 551

                  3. This number is only 1 digit removed from the exact account in Numbers

                  4. Are the numbers intended to be mathematical units or not?

                  5. We can’t be sure

                6. Apparently there are several people in this group that are not biological Israelites

            4. 430 years

                1. In Genesis it says 400 years

                2. In Galatians it says 250 years

                3. Several differing numbers

                4. 1 Kings 6:1 – 480=1446 as the mathematical number for the exodus

                  1. 12x40=480: could argue for symbolic interpretation

                  2. However, Judges 11:26 – 300 years, that puts us in the vicinity of 1446

            1. It is important to note that the biblical text, Exodus, is not concerned with the who, what, when, where… what is important is the theology

            2. If the Bible is quick to emphasize the theology then we ought to do the same

            3. Emphasize what occurred rather then when it occurred

        1. Verse 12:42-51

            1. Hebrew: shimmurim – “keeper”

                1. NASB – “to be observed”

                2. This word occurs only in this verse out of the whole Bible

                3. It has a brilliant rhetorical effect

                4. “It is a night for keeping by Yahweh, it is night for keeping by the Israelites”

                5. The writer is enhancing the notion that this night will be celebrated forever

                6. This ties Israel and Yahweh into a relationship that is renewed annually at Passover

            2. Ordinance of the Passover

                1. No foreigners

                2. Must be circumcised

                3. No servants

                4. Must be inside – if it is taken outside or a bone is broken then it is possible that it could be found by non-Israelites

            1. The Israelites had been preparing for this moment

            2. Marched in formation, probably by clans, so that they could protect their families

            3. Incredibly difficult to maneuver that many people

            4. We are told more about how the Passover is supposed to be kept and not very much about the actual exodus

                1. Likewise, several chapters are devoted to the plagues

                2. Theology

        1. Verse 13:1-2

            1. Yahweh seems to be saying, “On the basis of the fact that I killed the firstborn of Egypt you are to return the firstborn to me”

            2. Israel has already been called Yahweh’s firstborn

            3. There must be a sacrifice to the Lord on the basis of the fact that the firstborn belongs to God – redemption (pada)

            4. This stands for all the firstborn: sons, daughters, slaves, animals

        1. Verse 13:3-4

            1. Very important concept: Remember

                1. Signs on the hand, forehead, etc.

                2. This was later taken literally in Judaism

            2. What does it mean to remember?

                1. Part of it is ritual (i.e. Passover)

                2. Surely more than pure static ritual is requested

                3. The Jewish tradition was that you relive it

                4. Passover was done in such a way that encourages the believer to relive the exodus moment

            1. In the ritual of the Christian calendar how can we relive the event, rather than just memorializing it?

                1. Two events in particular: The Lords Supper and Easter

                2. The challenge is creating a situation where this can be experienced thousands of years later

            1. Abib is the month

        1. Verse 13:5

            1. List of the nations

                1. Almost always ends with the Jebusites

                2. They are the inhabitants of Jerusalem

                3. Interesting, because Jerusalem does not become the centerpiece of the war until the time of David

            2. Conquest

                1. Joshua fights three major battles

                2. The first is in the area of Jerusalem and he defeats the Jebusites in battle, but does not take over the city

                3. Priority of Judah in the text, Jerusalem was in their territory

            1. Hittites were far to the north

            2. Amorites were in the area of chazor

            3. Hivites

                1. Not sure who or where they are

                2. Could be a mistake and might be the Horites

            1. Milk and honey

                1. Canaanite proverb

                2. Should not be taken literally

                3. The land was much more luscious than it is now

        1. Verse 13:6-10

            1. Absolutely no leaven

            2. Tell your son

                1. In almost all the perpetuating of the ceremonies it is the father telling the son

                2. This is God’s way of continuing His relationship with Israel

                3. Deut. 6:7 – “teach” means “repeat”

            3. Our culture is different, we hire out everything

                1. We expect the schools to teach our kids

                2. We expect youth pastors to teach our kids

                3. However, the clearly stated means of teaching God’s plan in the Bible is fathers telling sons (or mothers telling daughters)

                4. The methodology is repeating

            1. God’s plan has always been through the family

                1. This teaching must be pervasive

                2. It cannot be a 20 minute family devotional

        1. Verse 13:11-16

            1. Firstborn theology

            2. The donkey is not supposed to be sacrificed, but because it is the firstborn it must be redeemed

            3. Verse 14-16 is the Old Testament Kerygma

                1. Those facts demand a faith response

                2. The Law hasn’t been given yet but when it is then that becomes the way a Hebrew responds in faith

        1. Verse 13:17-18

            1. “The way of the Philistines”

                1. Anachronism – phrase from a later time imposed back onto the text

                2. The Philistines were not there in Moses’ time

                3. This path was heavily guarded by the Egyptians

            2. God doesn’t send them down this path because He knows that they are not ready to fight

            3. It is very easy for us to look at these events as a flight from Egypt to Israel

                1. In reality, it is a journey toward something, not necessarily Canaan

                2. This is a journey toward establishing the fact that Yahweh is present

                  1. This means a full and final defeat of Pharaoh and his armies

                  2. This is why they meander and take their time

                  3. Yahweh is drawing Pharaoh into a battle

                3. If Israel had gone three days straight into the wilderness then Pharaoh couldn’t have followed

        1. Verse 13:19-22

            1. Since God gave this land to Israel it is imperative that they all be buried in the land

            2. Furthermore, it is important to be buried with your family, in the same cave

            3. The Israelites carried false deities with them in the wilderness according to Amos

            4. Yahweh is demonstrating that He is the divine warrior

        1. Verse 14:1-4

            1. They turn around so that the water is to the east of the Israelites

            2. This provokes Pharaoh to come after them

            3. Hebrew wordplay: kabod

                1. Same root for harden his heart

                2. Same root for I will receive honor

        1. Verse 14:5-9

            1. Each Egyptian chariot had 3 soldiers in it

                1. 1 soldier drove

                2. 1 soldier protected with a shield

                3. 1 soldier fought

            2. Pharaoh’s 600 chariots are the main striking force

            3. The other chariots are used for enveloping purposes

            4. Could have upwards of 1200-1500 chariots

            5. Used in this passage

                1. 14 times every chariot

                2. 12 times every horseman

                3. The entire army

            1. The Hebrews don’t have hardly any weapons

        1. Verse 14:10-12

            1. The Israelites are scared to death

            2. Sarcastic response

            3. Pharaoh had no intention of killing them, he wanted his slaves back

            4. We convince ourselves that if we see miracles that they will somehow fix everything

            5. Exodus points out that miracles do not solve the human problem

            6. The Israelites attack Moses just like in 5:21, 6:9, 15:24

            7. The greatest challenge that we will have in our whole life is relational

            8. Echoes Adam and Eve, blaming pattern – Gen. 3

                1. This sets the pattern for the human relationship

                2. This is why divorce is so rampant

                3. God shows His love by sustaining relationship with us despite or childish actions

        1. Verse 14:13

            1. Moses doesn’t take it personally

            2. It seems that never seeing Egyptians again will solve all the problems!

            3. The reality is that after the Egyptians drown there are new avenues and new people for our selfishness and our fear

            4. We live our lives subservient to the philosophy of “if only…”

                1. This is the way we think

                2. If only

                3. Philippians 4:13 – I have learned the secret of success, to be content in all things

        1. Verse 14:14-18

            1. This whole story reverberates the language and ideas of Genesis

                1. “Dry land” – same word as in Genesis

                2. The Creation God is reminded them that He can create dry land for them, as their backs are to the sea

                3. Genesis 6-9; God drowns the wicked and the dry land is the evidence of God’s grace

            2. The word “to harden” and “to honor” come from the same Hebrew root

        1. Verse 14:19-22

            1. God has led the Israelites to a position where their back is to the sea

            2. The only thing separating them from destruction is the Lord as He moves the cloud in between the Israelites and the Egyptians

            3. Moses lifts his staff and the Lord creates dry land

            4. God is going to great extremes to perpetuate His relationship with them – for God to be true to the covenant

        1. Verse 14:23-25

            1. Pharaoh acts as if the plagues never happened!

            2. He makes a very poor military decision by putting his whole army in the sea

            3. The chariots may have struggled from the mud or sandy ground

        1. Verse 14:26-28

            1. The divine symbol, Moses’ staff, raises once more and the sea engulfs the Egyptians

            2. The Creator God is stronger than the decreator god

            3. No survivors

        1. Verse 14:29-31

            1. This is not the way that normal relationships work

            2. In all the OT Yahweh only drowns the Egyptians once

            3. This is an act to demonstrate that Yahweh is present

            4. True relationships are those that occur and function on more realistic levels like: obedience, faith, and trust

            5. It is no accident that Yahweh calls for the above 3 things when the waters settle

            6. Real relationships have to have law, they cannot be sustained on modern western weddings

            7. It is indeed an incredible demonstration of God’s power – but if we say this everyday it wouldn’t change a single thing in our lives

            8. Clearly, as will be seen, this event does not solve the relational problems of faith and trust

            9. Oscar Wildes – “If the gods wished to punish us they would simply answer our prayers”

            10. Unfortunately our prayers are based on our “if only’s”

            11. If we believe in Him we will obey Him; if we don’t we will believe in ourselves

        1. Verse 15:1-18

            1. The victory is celebrated with poetry

            2. Poetry is very hard to translate but it is beautiful in the Hebrew

            3. Verse 8 likens the east wind to God’s nostrils

            4. Verse 9 gives 6 first person references

            5. Yahweh will reign forever – that’s the heart of the story

            6. This has evidence that parts of the poem was reworked at a later date

            7. Demonstrates that in the Jewish tradition historical events are memorialized in song

        1. Verse 15:19-22

            1. The story of Moses begins with women and the act of deliverance is closed with women

            2. The faithful activity of women creates an envelope from Exodus 1-15

            3. Similar to when David succeeds in battle against the Philistines

            4. Women are named in chapter 1-2 when Pharaoh isn’t!

        1. Summary

            1. Pattern

                1. It is inevitable that we will cry out – that’s apart of life outside of the garden

                2. Yahweh then gives us a word and a deed

                3. That word and deed results in deliverance

                4. The deliverance results in songs of praise

            2. When Adam and Eve sinned were they cursed?

                1. NO!

                2. Adam and Eve were punished

                3. Satan was cursed

            1. In a fallen world there will always be thorns and thistles

                1. Life will never be like it was in the garden

                2. There is eternally adversity in real-world living

                3. Without pain we wouldn’t know our need for relationship with God

                4. We would never desire a relationship with God without thorns and thistles

            1. The people who are highlighted in Revelation were over comers

            2. It was significant for the Israel to go through a difficult time for them to understand their need for a relationship with God

            3. God who is the author of all historical events uses those events consistently to force us back into a relationship with Him

            4. Psalms

                1. The person in the Psalms experiences orientation

                  1. Orientation means life is good, life is smooth nothing is going wrong

                2. God then brings about disorientation

                  1. Disorientation is when our lives are interrupted we are now in pain and we don’t like it

                  2. This can come from God Himself, Satan, life experience, ourselves, wherever

                1. It is precisely in that mode of disorientation that we have a pure form of lament

                  1. This is where God finds us

                1. God then brings out new orientation

                  1. Without disorientation there will be no change, there will be no new orientation

                1. The consistent result of new orientation is praise

            1. This Psalms pattern is a microcosm of what happens in the book of Exodus

            2. This pattern is how our personal relationships work as well

                1. Most of us are content to live in orientation

                2. But the true life is found in new orientation which comes through disorientation

            1. Marriage

                1. One of the most important words in marriage is change

                2. If you don’t do it, you won’t make it

                3. You have to adapt to the different seasons of life

            1. When the hard times come are we going to demand that we need to go back to the old or will we press on to the new?

            2. Curiously, even if where we are at is miserable we want to stay; we do not want to change

            3. All of God’s saving acts in the OT refer back to this Sea of Reeds story

            4. Why is there so little text given to such a major event?

                1. This story is another event in the story that shows that God is present

                2. The major event in the NT (Jesus’ death and resurrection) is told in just a few verses also

                3. They were thinking theologically whereas we think historically

    1. The Wilderness Wanderings - 15:22-18:27

        1. Verse 15:22-27

            1. Yahweh is celebrated as a warrior

                1. He uses no weapons

                2. He uses His creation

                3. Military might in the Scriptures is almost always pictured negatively

                4. The church is in the same capacity as the Remnant was in OT Israel

            2. Yahweh is healer

                1. God is not interested in answering every complaint with a positive response

                2. God is using these events to teach them how to function in a relationship with Him

                3. Relationships

                  1. Communication

                  2. Commitment

                  3. How does belief occur?

                  4. Conflict

                  5. Without conflict you are not exposing the weak points in your relationship

                4. The result of the first plague is that they cannot drink the water

                  1. Now the same problem occurs again

                  2. Why would God juxtapose the trial and the plague?

                  3. God’s saving acts are consistently anchored in history

                  4. By putting the Israelites in the same position as the Egyptians God is reminding them that He has the power to plague and the power to reward

                  5. God is establishing the theology of His presence

            1. Not sure where Elim is at

        1. Verse 16:1-4

            1. Wilderness of Sin

                1. This is the name of the moon god

                2. The move on the 15th day also, which means there was a full moon

                3. Perhaps reminiscent of Genesis 1 creation

            2. Miracle after miracle and yet complaints still arise

            3. “Grumbling”

                1. Dominant characteristic of this chapter

                2. Appears 7 times in this chapter

                3. Grumbling is a form of relating

                  1. Most likely destructive but still relating

                  2. Counterproductive

                4. God is committed to deepening and continuing His relationship with Israel

                5. Sharing negative thoughts in a constructive manner is essential to a relationship

                6. By in large, rarely is the fight about what the problem is

                  1. There is usually an underlying cause

                  2. What is the real occasion for the grumbling?

                  3. It’s really lack of faith not lack of water

                  4. It is our nature to use a substitute rather than what we are really concerned about

                1. The way in which grumbling/disagreement are approached is most important

                2. God embraces our doubts and concerns in the Psalms – the idea of new orientation mentioned above

        1. Verse 16:5

            1. Same verb used for raining hail on the Egyptians

            2. Here bread is giving by means of “rain”

            3. The 8th plague – locust come up and cover the land

            4. Here quail come up and cover the land

            5. “My law”

                1. Ironic because the Law hasn’t been given yet

                2. The most dominant theological point in this chapter is the emphasis on the 7th day

                  1. This is a law that has been in place since the beginning of time

                  2. This is a creation order law

                  3. We are not under any of the Law

                  4. However, this law precedes the giving of the Law and should indeed have some consequence for us

                  5. Adam and Eve most likely followed intuitively if not specifically the Sabbath law

                  6. We are not under Sabbath laws (the ones contained in the Mosaic Law and Jewish traditions) but we are under the Sabbath concept and as believers we should in some way sanctify a Sabbath day

                  7. This does not necessarily have to be Saturday but it really does need to be done

        1. Verse 16:7

            1. The primary thing that God wants is for the Israelites to see His glory

            2. God knows that providing food will not solve the problem

            3. Intersects with Moses in Exodus 32 about “show me Your glory”

            4. The bread and the quail are not the answer to their problems, seeing the glory of the Lord is the final answer (John 1:14)

        1. Verse 16:8-30

            1. Image of God

                1. Being made in the image of God means more than a statue

                2. It includes that we can do what no other part of the creation can do, talk

                3. This is a unique gift to humans

                4. Too often the gifts that He gives are the ones that we abuse

            2. When we are grumbling we are in a decreator role

            3. Communication is the single most important thing in life

            4. They called it Manna which means “what is it?”

            5. God speaks a lot about gathering it

            6. God says only take what you can use

            7. “Gather” appears 9 times in this short unit

            8. Gather 6 days and gather twice as much as you need so you can rest on the Sabbath

            9. Gathering commands

                1. Gather

                2. Gather in a precise way

                3. Don’t gather on the 7 day

            1. This story is repeated in John 6

            2. The gather story goes directly back to Genesis

                1. Adam and Eve were provided with free food but they had to gather it

                2. They were given similar instructions

                3. Don’t gather from the tree of knowledge of good and evil

            1. Primary point is that God is King

                1. As King God provides for His people

                2. Just as in Genesis 1-2 God works through a vice-regent (Adam and Eve)

                3. Here the vice-regent is Moses

            1. 1 Thessalonians – If you do not work you do not eat

            2. God the King provides for us but our responsibility is to gather/work

                1. When human beings receive without working something bizarre happens

                2. Something bad happens to our thinking when we do not work and yet receive

                3. Work is spiritually nurturing

                4. Work is God’s gift to us

                5. We are made in His image – God works, we work; God rests, we rest

                6. There are also specific ways to work (cf. all the gathering rules)

                7. The climax is you must rest

            1. The Sabbath law is given authority long before the Mosaic Law

                1. It is based on creation order

                2. We might be missing out on the blessing of God by not being true to His Sabbath model

                3. It is equally important for your spiritual well being to rest

                4. It is spiritually nurturing to rest

                5. God has instituted the rhythm of life in Genesis 1-2

                6. There are consequences for choosing to live our lives outside of His rhythm

            1. Rest means strengthening our relationships

                1. With God

                2. With others

                3. The commandment to love God and love others comes into play

        1. Verse 16:31-36

            1. Joshua 5:12 says when the Manna stopped

            2. Even in that situation they are still in a gathering position

        1. Verse 17:1-4

            1. They were in a tough situation, you can only go 3-4 days without water

            2. They insist on putting God to the test

            3. Instead of using communication whereby they might have a healthy way of relating they choose to attack their leader

            4. They are ready to kill Moses

            5. God is trying to get the Israelites to learn how to follow a leader

            6. [Moses and Monarchy]

        1. Verse 17:5-7

            1. This is the third time out of 4 complaints that Moses is afraid for his life

            2. Serious lessons need to be learned about how they relate to God

            3. “Strike”

                1. Same staff Moses used to strike the Nile

                2. Now he uses it to strike the rock and bring forth good water

                3. Water symbolizes life

                4. God consistently requires that His work be done through Moses

                5. Moses uses his staff which is clearly a symbol of kingship

            4. For the next 4 centuries the Israelites will not follow their leaders

            5. Foreshadow that Israel will not follow Christ

            6. Furthermore, foreshadows the church

            7. God is trying to prepare Israel to accept and follow a king

            8. If God raises up a leader then he is god to the people

            9. When we try to manipulate God to fit us that is testing God

                1. Testing is demanding that God meat us on our terms

                2. Trusting is the exact opposite of testing

        1. Verse 17:8-16

            1. The Amalekites may have attacked because there is water at that place now

            2. There has never been water there before but there is now

            3. The Amalekites are one of the most hated of ancient peoples

            4. God has just created water and now Amalek is acting as a decreator by trying to take it away

            5. God does not fight the battle for them this time but uses Joshua

                1. This is the first mention of Joshua as a military leader

                2. He was somehow at the status of a major general over Israel

            6. Moses (and his staff) is still the medium which God uses to win the battle

            7. God centralizes His personal power and authority in Moses

                1. Not one king in Israel ever had the power that Moses had

                2. God intended to relate to Israel through a king

                3. This is a God’s model for Israel

                4. God’s number one plan (which goes back to Gen. 49) was to raise up royal leaders

                5. The problem is not kingship; it is not good or bad

                  1. If it functions according to God’s rules then it is good

                  2. If it functions according to man’s rules then it is bad

                6. Kingship that revolves strictly around authority is wrong

                7. God’s model was to invest Himself fully in one man and use him as he is in a proper subservient relationship with God

                8. Moses is the kind of man God wants to use

                  1. Utterly obedient

                  2. Humble – pious

                  3. Speaks to God face to face

                1. The way Moses led Israel is the way that God’s wants successive leaders to lead Israel

            1. The Amalekites continue to remain throughout the OT as an enemy of God’s people

                1. They “kind of” replace Pharaoh

                2. They become decreators

        1. Chapter 18:1-16

            1. This chapter tells far more about the transfer of authority than the actual Exodus itself

            2. Moses’ father-in-law plays a large role and then disappears

            3. There is more happening here than a family reunion

            4. It is possible that the text is reflecting Jethro’s commitment to becoming a follower of Israel’s God

                1. There is sort of a conversion sequence

                2. Jethro hears, speaks with Moses, is convinced, they go into a tent (a predecessor of the tabernacle?), Yahweh is greater than all other gods (faith affirmation), had a meal with all elders of Israel

                3. This order of events very well may be a covenant being made here

                4. If so, it is a covenant made in light of God’s saving acts of humanity through Israel

        1. Chapter 18:17-27

            1. Moses is judging before Sinai

                1. There are already laws

                2. Echoes chapter 2 – when there is a dispute between two Hebrews

            2. Some say this is the foundation of the institution of the judicial system of Israel

            3. There is probably more to it than that

            4. What does this establish about kingship?

                1. In the ancient near east the king in all cultures was specially franchised with keeping the law – justice

                  1. This is one of the most important tasks of a king

                  2. Moses is king

                  3. Moses, as a king, has a prime responsibility to establish justice

                  4. Everyone must enjoy justice

                  5. David is not attending to the affairs of his kingdom in 2 Samuel 15, Absalom is doing it

                  6. Kingship must be established around laws

                2. Administrative issue that is to the benefit of everyone

                3. Delegation

                4. Moses is not on an ego trip

            1. They are probably following customary law at this time

            2. Deuteronomy 17:14-20

            3. Passage may be similar to Numbers 11:17

            4. Two main points of this passage

                1. Conversion of Jethro to a follower of the Lord

                2. Establish Moses’ kingship and how it functions

    1. Law and Covenant - 19:1-24:18

        1. Chapter 19:1-6

            1. Climax of the entire book is right here, chapters 19-20

            2. Arrived at Sinai at the exact day of the new moon

            3. They will stay here for 11 months

            4. “I bore you on eagles’ wings”

                1. Deut. 32:11

                2. Terminology is redemptive

                3. Creation account (Gen. 1:2) is related through bird terminology

                  1. “Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters”

                  2. Same verb that means “nesting”

            5. More than just a covenant is going on

            6. God is calling a unique people for Himself

                1. My own Possession (special)

                2. Kingdom of Priests

                  1. Missionary imperative

                  2. All Israel is assigned a task of ministering to other nations

                  3. Their task is to obey the law to save the world

                  4. God is saving Israel in order to save all the nations of the earth

                3. Holy nation

        1. Chapter 19:7-17

            1. “All that the Lord has asked we will do” – reminiscent of Joshua 24

            2. Perhaps this is not a making of a new covenant

                1. It is an extension of the Abrahamic covenant

                2. There is something new, but perhaps not a whole new covenant

                3. If it is not a brand new covenant than perhaps it is Israel agreeing to keep the laws of the land

            3. Covenant (cf. on “The Whole Law as Ethical”)

                1. There is no such thing as an unconditional covenant

                2. They are all unending

                3. Because they are divinely ordained they continue for all time

                4. All covenant’s are organized under the Abrahamic covenant

            1. Only place in the OT where all the people are said to have heard

            2. Only place in the OT where God is heard without an intermediary

            3. This also happens so that the people will believe Moses

            4. Forever does not mean forever

            5. God will work powerfully through Moses and they are expected to follow

            6. Symbolizes their cleansing

            7. Anticipates Leviticus

            8. An individual must prepare himself/herself to come into the presence of God

            9. God has graciously come down in their midst and shows Himself to all Israel

                1. God says come close, but no closer than this

                2. There is a contrast here with the NT

                3. Jesus Christ has removed the border between God and us

            1. Sex is forbidden because of the possibility of blood which would make one unclean

        1. Chapter 19:18-25

            1. These events and this Theophany must be interpreted in relational terms

            2. One of the best developed Theophanies in the Bible

            3. Theophany – God of light

                1. God on a mountain top

                2. Distance between God and people

                3. People must wash and get ready

                4. Thunder and lightning

                  1. Same word as in Gen. 3:8

                  2. Before the fall it was not as frightening

                5. Thick cloud

                6. Trumpet sound – supernatural ram’s horn

            4. If God is relational, why is He scarring the living day lights out of them?

                1. Puts the relationship in the proper perspective

                2. It is explaining that they have to understand how to relate to God

                3. Shows the high price of sin

                4. Before the fall it was not this way

                5. After fall it has to be this way

            1. God has come down

                1. This is a certain revisit from before the fall

                2. It is as if God has rescued the human race by coming down to dwell permanently

                3. This is the first time from before the fall that He comes down for residency

                4. God only takes His presence away at the end of the OT in order to send Christ down

            1. It would be easy to interpret these events in the OT terms of clean and unclean

            2. However, it is more accurate to recognize that God is choosing to relate to them through the person of Moses

                1. This is the mediator concept

                2. This is a model of what Christ will do

                3. The people were clean, they had sanctified themselves

                4. God has chosen to speak through His divinely chosen mediator(s)

            1. Priests

                1. There was some sort of organization before the organization

                2. Not sure how they came to be or why, but they were there

                3. There was animal sacrifice before the Law

            1. This is not the beginning of a new distinct covenant, but the edge of fulfilling the Abrahamic covenant

            2. The primary reason for the giving of the law revolves around the concept of land

                1. Most of the Mosaic laws revolve around how people live with one another in the land

                2. Also how they live with God in the land

            1. Perhaps it is more accurate to think about this in terms of fulfilling the Abrahamic covenant

        1. Chapter 20:1-2 and Background

            1. God proceeds to give them the ten commandments

            2. In Jewish thought, these are referred as “the ten words”

            3. The ten words are introduced by the preamble in verse 2

                1. The reason for obeying the law is the identity and activity of the One giving them

                2. This is not mere legalism

                3. These are laws given in the context of relationship

                4. Keeping law for the sake of law keeping is useless; but keeping law for the sake of relationship is what it is about

            4. The ten are not magical

                1. This list is only reduplicated in Deut. 5

                2. The other 6 or so times they are mentioned they are not exactly the same

                3. The point is the concept of these, not the exact word for word laws

            1. The ten revolve around four concepts (from Survey of OT by Hill and Walton)

                1. Authority – 1, 5

                2. Dignity – 2, 6, 7, 8

                3. Commitment – 3, 9

                4. Rights and Privileges – 4, 10

            1. A surer foundation:

                1. The first four are how we are to relate to God

                2. The last six are how we relate to other people

                3. This is in accordance with Jesus in Matthew 22:37-29

            1. Ironically, law is situated permanently in the context of relationship

            2. Love is related directly to doing

            3. Most important theological word in the OT: hesed

                1. Steadfast love

                2. The kind of love that you show precisely because you are in a covenant relationship

            1. The relationship comes first, then the law

                1. The laws exist to show us how we relate

                2. Important to remember that Israel was God’s people before the law

                3. The law was given in order further the relationship between the two

                4. Jesus, “If you love Me, obey”

            1. Matthew 5 – “Not one jot or tittle will pass away”

                1. Whatever Christ was saying, he was confirming the Law

                2. He came to fulfill the Law

                3. How can Christ say that when by this time there are already laws that cannot be kept

                4. The Law of Moses was given to a specific people for a specific time in a specific place

                5. In what sense is the Law eternal?

                  1. All Scripture becomes useful because all Scripture is applicable

                  2. The secret: the Law is eternal in the sense that every law ever given has a truth behind it that does not fade

                  3. Every law has timeless truth to it

                  4. Essentially, everybody has rights

                  5. It would be ludicrous to take Paul’s commands literally

                  6. i.e. to Timothy “take a little wine for your stomach” literally

                  7. It really means, go to the doctor for us

            1. It is law for relationship’s sake, not law for law’s sake

            2. Wherever there is relationship there has to be law

                1. The more intimate the relationship the more laws

                2. Law has no life apart from relationship

            1. The fact that God wanted everyone to hear seems to suggest that He wanted everyone to feel that personal relationship with Him

            2. We are not legally under the law; if so then we are also under the punishments

            3. But truthfully we are under the law

        1. Chapter 20:3-17 – Ten Words

            1. The first law excludes all others, relationally specific; like marriage

            2. What is so wrong with image making?

                1. We assume the role of creator when we make an image

                2. We become pseudo-creators

                3. We bear the image and likeness of God

                  1. God created us

                  2. “Image and likeness” usually refers to statues

                  3. God created us as statues in that we are like Him because we are alive

            3. Third or fourth generations

                1. God is teaching that nationally God’s judgment can fall on subsequent generations

                2. Shows His justice

            1. Do not take the name of the Lord your God in vain

                1. We usually think of this in obscenities or using it in vulgarity

                  1. Not True

                  2. This is just bad taste

                2. It means choosing to be part of this covenant and then not being true it

                3. All covenants were concluded with the employment of the divine name to seal it, so to break the covenant would be to violate the name

                4. This is a major reason why divorce is such an atrocity, marriage is taking an oath under the divine name

                5. Jesus said specifically, “Let your yes be yes, and your no, no”

            1. Remember the Sabbath

                1. Already discussed in the context of creation (cf. above)

                2. The law is as much an act of worship as it is avoidance of work

                3. Wherever there is a law there is danger of legalism

                4. This is a part of creation-keeping

                5. Sabbath keeping must result in worship

                6. It is the presence of worship as much as the absence of work that is the point of the command

            1. Honor your father and mother

                1. This seems to be more of a command for grown children in light of elderly parents

                2. Jesus was infuriated with the Pharisees concerning their practices about this

                  1. Qorban – claiming that their work and money were dedicated to God

                  2. The reality is that they need to care for their parents

                3. Nursing homes are very questionable in light of this command

                4. “That your days may be prolonged”

                  1. Model for creation order

                  2. Not so much an absolute command

                1. In situations where a choice must be made Jesus said that we are to choose Him first – “hate father and mother”

            1. You shall not murder

                1. We don’t have the right to murder because human beings are made in God’s image

                2. Murdering with your speech is every bit as culpable as literally (James, Proverbs)

                3. This command is addressing individuals in a relational format

                4. What effect does this have on capital punishment? War?

                  1. Does the state have the right to exercise these functions?

                  2. Clearly in the OT God sanctioned capital punishment, but that does not mean that that is God’s desire for all nations for all times

                  3. Paul sanctions state authority in Romans 13 (the same authority that ultimately executed him)

                5. This is also a creational order law, not just a part of the Law of Moses

            1. You shall not commit adultery

                1. Simply a violation of creation order

                2. Violation of covenant keeping

                3. Reminds us of the primacy of the family unit

                4. The perpetuation of the family is sacred

                5. God often times works through the sin itself

                  1. In David’s case his multiple wives caused a lot of problems

                  2. His children went against each other and against David and caused a lot of problems in his family later in his life

            1. You shall not steal

                1. A violation of a person, not just taking there stuff

                2. What makes this a crime is that the person is violated

                3. Possessions are not as important as persons

                4. Stealing is a relational crime, not just wealth

                5. It is the act of violation of the community that makes it a crime

            1. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor

                1. This is a great deal more than just testifying in a court room

                2. It includes anything that undermines someone else’s reputation

                3. Anytime one’s speech tears someone else down

                4. This is very destructive in a local church context

            1. You shall not covet your neighbor…

                1. The problem here is more than just illicit desires

                2. In Hebrew thought it is inevitable desires that lead to actions

                3. Must not covet anything that belongs to another person

                4. Huge problem in our culture

                5. Paul gave the anecdote – “I have learned to be content in whatever state I am in”

            1. Summary

                1. These commands establish relational principles

                2. These ten words form the basis of all law as we know it

                3. We need to recognize that all the laws are based on relationship to God and to one another

                4. It is not adequate to avoid breaking these ten

                5. The real goal is deepening the relationship of the community

                6. Our success is measured by our ability to deepen community relationships

                7. Our obedience to God should flow from the right heart attitude

        1. Chapter 20:18-26

            1. Giving of the law was punctuated with a Theophany

                1. people in right frame of mind: fearful

                2. Elevates Moses to a unique position regarding the people

            2. The alter you are making must not be a permanent alter

                1. Perhaps this is anticipating the day when they will come into the promised land

                2. At that time there will be a permanent alter in the temple

            1. Nakedness not exposed echoes Noah

        1. How do we think about law?

            1. We tend to read law as if each law is sacred and eternal

                1. The reality is most of these are time-bound

                2. In other words, the slave laws no longer are useful because we do not have slaves

            2. At least ten times there are laws about oxen – we don’t have oxen!

            3. Every law has a principle behind it that is eternal